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Full text of "dao_gia_khi_cong"

NAM HOA KINH - 

Cac sach chii giai Trang Tu : 

Trang hoc rat thanh ve doi Nguy Tan (220- 316) , cho nen sach vo chii giai Trang tir cua thai 
ay cung rat nhieu. 

Huong- Tu tu la Tu- ky (221- 300) , nguoi doi Nguy Tan co chii giai Trang tu, tuy truoc ong 
cung da co ca chuc nha chu giai, nhung deu la thien bac khong nam duoc yeu chi, khong xien 
minh noi cai hoc cua Trang Chau. Tan Tho cho rang chi co Huong- Tu la nguoi dau tien 
thong duoc cho huyen- chi cua Trang hoc. 

Nhung ong chi chu giai den thien Thu- Thuy va Chi- Lac thi chet. Ve sau, den doi Hue- de thi 
co Quach- Tuong (1) can cii vao chu giai cua Huong- Tu ma dien giai rong them ra. Boi vay 
ve sau nguoi ta thay hai ban Huong- tu va Quach- Tuong nghia- ky tuong dong nhu cua mot 
nguoi viet ra vay. 

Con ban co- nhat cua Tu- Ma- Buu (khoang giua nha Tan (221) (truoc G. S) , luon ca ban chu 
giai cua Thoi- Tuyen thi hien thoi mat ca. Qua thoi Nam Bac- Trieu cac nha chii giai Trang 
cung dong, nhung chi con lai ban cua Quach- Tuong la co nhat thoi. Ngay nay so di nguoi ta 
co thay duoc mot vai dau vet cua cac nha chu giai tren day, la nho o sach cua Luc- Due- Minh 
doi Duong. Trong bai Tu- Luc cua Thich- Van, Luc- Due- Minh cho biet rang Tu- Ma- Buu 
co chu giai 21 quyen, 52 thien, con Thoi- Tuyen thi chu 10 quyen, 27 thien, Huong- tu chu 20 
quyen, 26 thien, Quach- tuong thi chu 33 quyen, 33 thien. 

Cac nha chu giai ve sau rat nhieu, nhung mot so dong thien ve phe binh van chuong hon la tu 
tuong. Dai khai nhu doi nha Minh co Chau- dac- Chi trong Nam- Hoa Thong- Nghia; doi 
Thanh co Ngo- the- thuong trong Trang tu giai; Ton- Gia- Cam trong Nam- Hoa- Thong; 
Lam- tay- Trong trong Trang tu Nhan; Luc- Thu- Chi trong Trang tu Tuyet. . . deu la nhung 
tay sanh ve van chuong ca. Vi vay, rat tiec la cac loi phe binh cua cac nha ay, yeu trong noi su 
thuong thuc cac cau van, nhung ve phan tu tuong lai khong phat minh duoc dieu gi mdi la ca, 
cho nen phan tu tuong cua ho rat la loan- chac, ruom- ra, ma toi khong phat huy duoc cai 
yeu- chi huyen- dieu ve phan tu tuong cua Trang Chau. 

Hoac ho la cac hoc gia thien ve Than- tien phai, ho ghep Trang tu vao cai hoc Truong- sinh 
cuu thi. Nhu Chii Ba- Tu, trong bo Nam- Hoa Chan- Kinh Nghia- Hai- Soan- Vi, ton Trang tu 
la Nam- Hoa Lao tien. 

Doi Tong, co Bich- Hu- Tu, doi Minh co La- Mien- Dao deu lay theo dien co cua Than- tien 
phai ma giai Trang tu. 

Va lay Than- tien hoc de ma giai Trang tu la phan rat dong. Chinh nguoi viet ve Trang tu day 
cung da gap nhieu van huu hoac hoc gia theo phai Than- tien cudi nhao va cho la chua thau 
dao duoc y nghia huyen dieu cua Trang tu vi da khong biet the theo Than- tien Dao- thu (cua 
Truong- Dao- Lang va nhat la Bao- Phac- tu) de giang giai Trang tu. 

Cung co nhieu nha chii giai thien ve Nho hoac Phat, lay tu tuong cua Nho- hoc hoac Phat- hoc 
ma giang Trang tu niia. Nhu doi Tong co Lam- Hi- Dat, doi Thanh co Luc- Thu- Chi, Luu- 
Hong- Dien cho Trang tu la mon do cua Khong. 

Doi Dong- Han, co Chi- Don, Tue- Lam, Tue- Vien cung rat sanh Lao Trang, nen dung cai 
hoc ay ma lam sang them cho Phat- hoc. Qua doi Duong co Thanh- Huyen- Anh; doi Minh co 
Luc- Tay- Tinh, Thich- Due thaNghia; doi Thanh co Truong- The- Lac va gan day co 
Chuong- Thai- Viem deu lay Phat- dien ma giai Trang tu. 

Trang tu la nguoi van hoc hoan toan. Kim- Thanh- Than sap ong vao hang" de nhat tai tu" 
tuong cung khong phai la qua dang. 

Luan ve ong, Tu- Ma- Thien co noi:" Sach Trang tu co hon muoi van chii, dai de deu la ngu 
ngon. . . Van ong kheo viet, loi le thii lop, chi viec, ta tinh de bai bac Nho Mac. Tuy duong 
thoi, nhung bac tiic- hoc uyen tham cung khong sao cai de go lay minh cho noi. Loi van cua 
ong thi phong- tiing menh mong, chi cau lay thich chi ma thoi. Cho nen tu cac bac vuong 
cong deu khong ai biet duoc noi ong la hang nguoi the nao" (Sii- Ky) . 



Tu doi Duong, Tong ve sau, cac bac dai van hao nhu Han- Du, Lieu- Ton- Nguyen, T6- 
Thiic. . . deu sung bai ca tung khong ngot. Sach Trang tu, ve phuong dien van hoc, la mot ang 
van kiet tac. 

Trang tu la nguoi biet ham duong chon- than rat la day du, cho nen khi phach ngang tang 
phong- dat. Van ong rat hon nhien nhu hoi may trong nui bay ra, nhu nuoc trong nguon 
chay. . . Ban ve mot le cao sieu tuyet- dich, co the cam ma khong the noi ra duoc bang nhung 
loi noi thong thuong nhi- nguyen, cho nen ong phai dung den" ngu- ngon" roi muon'' trung- 
ngon" ma lam cho sang to them. Trong do su tich tuy co that ma cau chuyen gia- thac la lung. 
Do la each dung cu the de ma giai thich truu tuong. Khi lai dung den" chi- ngon", tiic la buot 
mieng noi ra, bat ke la dung hay khong vdi lich su. Cho nen van chuong cua ong huyen thuc 
ma hu. . . nhu le Dao muon mau. That la rat khac xa voi van- tu cua" bach- gia chu- tu". 

NAM HOA KINH - DUG SUNG PHU : 

DUG SUNG PHU 

A. L6 huu ngot gia Vuong Dai, tung chi du gia, du Trong Ni tuong nhuoc. 

Thuong quy van u Trong Ni viet: "Vuong Dai ngot da da, tung chi du gia du phu tu trung 

phan L6. Lap bat giao, toa bat nghi, hu nhi vang, thuc nhi quy; co huu bat ngon chi giao, vo 

hinh nhi tarn thanh gia da? Thi ha nhan da?" 

Trong Ni viet: "Phu tu, thanh nhan da. Khiru da true hau nhi vi vang nhi! Khuu tuong di vi 

su, nhi huong bat nhuoc Khuu gia ho! He gia L6 quoc, Khuu tuong dan thien ha nhi du tung 

chi." 

Thuong quy viet: "Bi ngot gia da, nhi Vuong tien sinh, ky du dung diec vien hi! Nhuoc nhien 

gia, ky dung tarn da, doc nhuoc chi ha?" 

Trong Ni viet: "tu sinh diec dai hi, nhi bat dac du chi bien, tuy thien dia phuc truy, diec tuong 

bat du chi di. Tham ho vo gia, nhi bat du vat thien, mang vat chi hoa, nhi thu ky tong da." 

Thuong Quy viet: "Ha vi da?" 

Trong Ni viet: "Tu ky di gia thi chim can dam So Viet da; tu ky dong gia thi chi, van vat giai 

nhat da. Phu nhuoc nhien gia, tha bat tri nhi muc chi so nghi[ii], nhi du tarn ho diic[iii] chi 

hoa. Vat thi ky so nhat nhi bat kien ky so tang, thi tang ky tuc, do di tho da." 

Thuong Quy viet: "Bi vi ky, di ky tri[iv] dac ky tarn, di ky tarn, dac ky thuong tam[v], vat ha 

vi toifvi] chi tai?" 

Trong Ni viet: "Nhan mac giam u luu thuy, nhi giam u chi thuy, duy nang chi, nang chi chiing 

chi[vii]. Thu mang u dia, duy tung ba doc da tai. Dong ha thanh thanh, thu mang u thien, duy 

Thuan loc da chinh. Hanh nang chinh sinh[viii], di chinh chiing sinh. Phu bao thuy chi trung, 

bat cu chi thuc; dung si nhat nhan, hing nhap u cuu quan, tuong cau danh nhi nang tu yeu gia, 

nhi do nhuoc thi; nhi huong quan thien dia, phu van vat, true ngu luc hai, tuong nhi muc, nhat 

tri chi so tri, nhi tarn vi thuong tu gia ho? Bi tha trach nhat nhi dang gia, nhan tac tung thi da; 

bi tha ha khang di vat vi su ho[ix]?" 

DICH NGHIA: 

DL^C SUNG PHU 

A. Nuoc L6, co nguoi cut chin, ten la Vuong Dai. So nguoi theo hoc ngang voi Trong Ni. 

Thuong Quy hoi Trong Ni: "Vuong Dai la ke cut chan, lai cung Thay chia hai hoc tro nuoc 

L6. Nguoi ay, dung thi khong day dieu chi; ngoi thi khong nghi luan viec gi. The ma, nguoi 

hoc den thi khong co gi ca, ma khi ra ve thay minh day du. Vay thi, co loi day ma khong can 

den loi, mac nhien ma cam hoa duoc long nguoi hay sao? Nguoi ay la nguoi gi vay?Nhan 

Trong Ni dap: "Phu tu la bac Thanh nhan day! Khuu nay di sau, chua the theo kip do. Khuu 

con muon ton do lam Thay, huong ho la nhung ke khong bang Khuu! Noi chi la mot nuoc L6. 

Khuu nay con muon dan ca thien ha ma cung theo do." 

Thuong Quy noi: "Do la ke cut chan, vay ma duoc Phu tu goi la bac Thay ho Vuong, tat 

nhien nguoi ay phai co cai gi khac xa voi ke tarn thuong! Nhu vay thi, rieng ong ta da su 



dung cai tarn nhu the nao? 

Trong Ni dap: "Chet song la viec Ion con khong lam cho do bien doi; Troi Dat du sup do, 
cung khong lam cho do sao dong. Xet ro Tinh Mang, ma khong de cho vat ngoai doi doi. 
Khien vat hda sinh, ma giu lay phan chu cua vat hda. 
Thuong Quy noi: "Nhu the nghia la gi?" 

Trong Ni dap: "Co hai each nhan thiic su vat, neu dung cho khac biet nhau ma xem,thi du nhu 
gan vdi mat cung thay each nhau xa nhu So vdi Viet; nhung, neu dung cho dong nhau ma 
xem, thi se thay van vat deu la Mot ca. Va neu duoc nhu vay (tuc la biet dung cho dong nhau 
ma xem van vat) thi dau can gi den su nhan thiic cua tai mat nua ma de cho long minh rong 
choi noi cho "hoa" cua Due. Vi vay ma coi su mat mot chan cua minh nhu mot hon dat bi 
danhroi thoi!" 

Thuong Quy noi: "Nguoi ta, khong ai lai soi minh d Ian nude chay, ma soi minh d Ian nude 
dung. Chi cd cai "lang diing" mdi dung lai duoc cai long mong lang diing cua nguoi nguoi. 
Cung thu Mang noi Dat ma rieng chi cd cay rung cay bach la ludn ludn ton tai: mot mau xanh 
xanh, bat cii d mua nao, mua ha hay mua dong. Cung thu Mang noi Troi ma rieng chi cd dng 
Thuan la giu: duoc cai Chinh cua minh. Cam dau thien ha ma chinh duoc cai Tinh cua minh, 
thi chinh duoc moi nguoi. Hang nguoi ma giu duoc Ban Tinh, thi ben ngoai rat diem tinh, 
chang biet so gi ca, nhu nguoi dung si mot minh xdng vao chin vdng quan. Vi hieu danh ma 
ho con dam lam viec ay, huong ho hang nguoi chu duoc Troi Dat, chua duoc van vat thi doi 
vdi cai than nay chang qua la gdi vao sau hai, nuong vao tai mat, con su hieu biet cua ho thi 
bao la ma cai tarn cua ho chua tung cd chet? Con nguoi ay chon ngay de trut bo cai gia. 
Nguoi ta tu chay theo day thdi, chu tu nguoi ay dau co chiu dem minh ma phung su cho thien 

ha?" 

*** 

B. Than Do Gia ngot gia da, nhi du Trinh Tu San[x] dong su u Ba Hon V6 Nhan. Tu San vi 

Than Do Gia viet: "Nga tien xuat, tac tu chi, tu tien xuat tac nga chi." 

Minh nhat huu du hop dudng dong tich nhi toa. Tu san vi Than Do Gia viet: "Nga tien xuat, 

tac tu chi, tu tien xuat, tac nga chi. Kim nga tuong xuat, tu kha di chi ho? Ky vi da? Tha tu 

kien chap chinh nhi bat vi, tu te chap chanh ho?" 

Than Do Gia viet: "Tien sinh chi mdn co huu chap chinh yen nhu thu tai? Tu nhi duyet tu chi 

chap chinh nhi hau nhan gia da! 

Van chi viet: "Giam minh tac tran cau bat chi, chi tac bat minh da. Cuu du hien nhan xu tac 

vd qua. Tu kim chi so thu dai gia, tien sinh da, nhi do xuat ngon nhuoc thi bat diec qua ho?" 

Tu San viet: "Tu ky nhuoc thi hi, do du Nghieu tranh thien, ke tu chi due, bat tuc di tu phan 

da?" 

Than Do Gia viet: "Tu trang ky qua di bat duong vong gia chung ; bat trang ky qua di bat 

duong ton gia qua. Tri bat kha nai ha nhi an chi nhuoc mang, duy huu due gia nang chi. Du u 

Nghe[xi] chi coc trung, trung uong gia, trung dia da, nhien nhi bat trung gia, Mang da. Nhon 

di ky toan tuc tieu ngd bat toan tuc gia, chung hi. Nga phat nhien nhi no, nhi thich tien sinh 

chi so, tac phe nhien nhi phan bat tri tien sinh chi tay nga di thien da? Ngd du phu tu du thap 

cuu thien hi, nhi vi thuong tri ngd ngot gia da. Kim tu nga du u hinh hai chi noi, nhi tu sach 

nga u hinh hai chi ngoai, bat diec qua ho?" 

Tu San thac nhien cai dung canh mao, viet: "Tu vo nai xung." 

DICH NGHIA: 

B. Than Do Gia la nguoi cut chan, cung vdi Tu San nude Trinh dong hoc vdi Ba Hon Vd 

Nhan. Tu San bao vdi Than Do Gia: "Ta ra trudc thi nguoi d lai. Nguoi ra trudc thi ta d lai." 

Ngay hdm sau, lai cung mot cho hoc, cung ngoi mot chieu. Tu San bao vdi Than Do Gia: "Ta 

ra trudc thi nguoi d lai. Nguoi ra trudc thi ta d lai. Nay ta sap di ra, vay nguoi co the d lai 

chang, hay la chua co the duoc? Va nguoi thay ke cam chinh quyen sao khong biet tranh qua 

mot ben? Nguoi ngang hang vdi ke cam chinh quyen u? 



Than Do Gia noi: "a ciia Thay day sao lai co ke goi la cam chinh quyen? Nguoi thich thu voi 
cai viec cam chinh quyen ciia nguoi ma xem moi nguoi deu diing sau nguoi ca! Ta nghe thay 
noi rang: Guong sang la vi bui bam khong vuong, bui bam ma vuong len thi mat guong se lu 
mo! o lau voi bac hien gia thi at khong loi lam. Nay nguoi o trong ciia Thay de cau hoc cai 
dai thiic, the sao lai con thot ra duoc nhung loi nhu vay, ha chang cung lam loi hay sao? 
Tii San noi: "Nguoi da la nguoi (tan tat) nhu the, sao lai con mong cung voi Nghieu ma tranh 
thien hay sao? Ke ve diic cua nguoi, khong du de ma xet lai minh u? 
Than Do Gia noi: "Tu che day loi cua minh, cho la khong dang bi hinh chat chan, thi nhieu! 
Khong che day loi cua minh, cho la khong dang con chan, thi it. Biet la khong the lam the nao 
khac duoc ma yen long chiu no va cho la so mang, thi chi co nguoi co due moi co the lam 
noi. o ngay trung tarn Ian ten cua Nghe ma lai thoat khoi bi ten, do la Mang vay. Nhung ke 
cay minh co du hai chan de che nhao nguoi khong du hai chan nhu ta, thi nhieu lam! Ta nghi 
cung tuc gian, nhung khi den hoc voi thay thi lai bang khuang ma tro ve, khong ro thay da 
dem cai hay gi ma rua ray duoc long ta? Ta o cung thay da muoi chin nam the ma thay chua 
thuong thay ta la diia cut chan! Nay nguoi choi voi ta o cho ben trong cua hinh hai, ma nguoi 
lai con khat khe voi cai hinh hai ben ngoai cua ta, chang cung lam loi hay sao?" 

Tu San ay nay, doi sac mat ma noi: "Thoi, dung noi den chuyen ay niia!" 

*** 

C. L6 hiiu ngot gia Thiic Son V6 Chi, chung kien Trong Ni. Trong Ni viet: 

"Tu bat can tien, ky pham hoan nhuoc thi hi, tuy kim lai ha cap hi!" 

V6 Chi viet: "Ngo duy bat tri vu nhi khinh dung ngo than, ngo thi di vong tuc. Kim ngo lai da, 

do huu ton tuc gia ton. Ngo thi di vu toan chi da. Phu thien vo bat phu, dia vo bat tai, ngo di 

phu tu vi thien dia; an tri phu tu chi do nhuoc thi da!" 

Khong- tu viet: "Khuu tac lau hi! Phu tu ho bat nhap ho? Thinh giang di so van." 

Vo Chi xuat. Khong- tu viet: 

"De tu mien chi! Phu Vo Chi ngot gia da, do vu hoc di phuc bo tien hanh chi ac, nhi huong 

toan due chi nhan ho?" 

Vo Chi ngii Lao Dam viet: "Khong- Khuu chi u chi nhan, ky vi da? Bi ha tan tan di hoc tu vi! 

Bi tha ky di xuc quy[xii] huyen quai chi danh van, bat tri chi nhon chi di thi vi ky chat coc 

da?" 

Lao Dam viet: 

"Ho bat true su bi di tu sinh vi nhat dieu, di kha bat kha vi nhat quan gia, giai ky chat coc, ky 

khaho?" 

Vo Chi viet: 

"Thien hinh chi, an kha giai." 

DICH NGHIA: 

C. Nude L6, co nguoi cut chan, ten la Thiic Son Vo Chi, khap khenh den ra mat Trong Ni. 

Trong Ni noi: 

Nguoi trudc day khong can than nen phai bi tai hoa nhu the, nay du co den day cung khong 

sao kip nua! 

Vo Chi noi: "Toi vi khong biet viec nen khinh dung tarn than nay ma phai bi mat het mot 

chan. Nay toi den day, con lai co mot chan quy nay, thoi toi mong giu cho no ven toan. Troi, 

khong gi la khong che; Datm khong gi la khong cho, toi mong xem phu tu nhu Troi Dat. Nao 

ngo phu tu lai doi xu voi toi nhu the!" 

Khong- tu noi: "Khuu nay qua hep hoi! Sao ong khong vao trong choi, toi xin dem nhving gi 

da nghe duoc ma giang cho ong nghe!" 

Vo Chi ra di. Khong- tii noi: 

Cac de tii hay co gang len! Kia nhu Vo Chi la ke cut chan ma con mong hoc de bu lai cai viec 

lam sai lam buoi truoc, huong chi ke ma diic van con ven toan! 

Vo Chi noi chuyen voi Lao Dam: 



Khong- Khuu hinh nhu chua phai la bac chi nhan! 6ng ta day lam gi ma dong hoc tro the? 

Ong lai con mong duoc tarn tieng ve nhung cai hoc ky di huyen hoac, vay chii ong khong biet 

rang doi voi bac chi nhan, do toan la nhung gong cum cho minh u? 

Lao Dam noi: 

Sao ong khong bao thang cho ong ta biet rang Song va Chet deu la cung mot le, nen va chang 

nen deu cung la mot viec, hau ma gong cum cho ong ta co duoc khong? 

V6 Chi noi: 

Troi da hanh toi ong ta, go ra sao duoc! 

*** 

D. L6 Ai Cong van u Trong Ni viet: "Ve huu ac nhan yen, viet Ai Dai Da, tnrong phu du chi 

xu gia, tu nhi bat nang khu da, phu nhon kien chi, thinh u phu mau, viet: "du nhan vi the, ninh 

vi phu tu thiep gia, so thap nhi vi chi da. vi thuong huu van ky xuong gia da, thuong hoa nhan 

nhi di hi. V6 quan tu chi vi, di te ho nhan chi tu, vo tu loc di vong nhan chi phuc, huu di ac 

hai thien ha, hoa nhi bat xuong, tri bat xuat ho, tu viic, tha nhi thu hung hop ho tien, thi tat 

hiiu di ho nhan gia da. Qua nhan trieu nhi quan chi, qua di ac hai thien ha, du Qua nhan xu, 

bat chi di ngoat so, nhi Qua nhan huu y ho ky vi nhan da; bat chi ho co nien, nhi Qua nhan tin 

chi. Quoc vo te, nhi Qua nhan truyen quoc yen. Muon nhien nhi hau ling. Ty nhuoc nhi tu, 

qua nhan xy ho tot thu chi quoc, vo ky ha da, khii Qua nhan nhi hanh. Qua nhan tuat yen, 

nhuoc huu vong da, nhuoc vo du lac thi quoc da. Thi ha nhan gia da?" 

Trong Ni viet: 

Khuu da thuong sii u So hi, thich kien don tu thuc u ky tu mau gia; thieu yen, tuan nhuoc giai 

khi chi nhi tau; bat kien ky yen nhi, bat dac loan yen nhi! So ai ky mau gia, phi ai ky hinh da, 

ai su ky hinh gia da. Chien nhi tu gia, ky nhan chi tang da, bat di sap tu, tac gia chi lu, vo vi ai 

chi, giai vo ky ban hi. Kim Ai Dai Da vi ngon nhi tin, vo cong nhi than, su nhan thu ky quoc, 

duy khung ky bat thu da, thi tat tai toan nhi due bat hinh gia da. 

Ai Cong viet: Ha vi tai toan? 

Trong Ni viet: Tu sinh, ton vong, cung dat, ban phii, hien da bat tieu, huy du, co khat han thu: 

thi su chi bien, mang chi hanh da. Nhat da tuong dai ho tien, nhi tri bat nang quy ho ky thuy 

gia da; co bat tuc di hoat hoa, bat kha nhap u linh phu su chi hoa du, thong nhi bat that u 

duyet; su nhat da vo khuoc nhi du vat giai xuan thi tiep nhi sinh thoi u tarn gia da, thi chi vi 

tai toan. 

Ha vi due bat hinh? 

Viet: "Binh gia thuy dinh chi thinh da ky kha di vi phap da, noi bao chi nhi ngoai bat dang da. 

Due gia thanh hoa chi tu da, due bat hinh gia, vat bat nang ly da." 

Ai Cong di nhat di cao Man tu viet: 

"Thuy da ngo di nam dien nhi quan thien ha, chap dan chi ky, nhi uu ky tu, ngo tu di vi chi 

thong hi. Kim ngo van chi nhan chi ngon khung ngo vo ky thuc, khinh dung ngo than, nhi 

vong ngo quoc. Ngo du Khong- Khuu, phi quan than da, due huu nhi di hi." 

CHU: 

Linh phu: cho o cua tinh than, am chi cai Tarn cua minh. 1 noi nhiing van de thuoc ve viec 

Song Chet, Cung Thong, Hien Ngu, Phai Quay. . . chi la nhung su bat thuong, khong nen de 

cho no lam dien dao su yen tinh cua tarn hon. 

Linh phu dong mot nghia voi linh dai ma Trang tu thuong dung o Canh Tang So trong cau 

"Bat kha noi u linh dai". o day Quach Tuong giai chii linh dai la am chi cai Tarn. 

DICH NGHIA: 

D. L6 Ai Cong hoi Trong Ni: 

Nude Ve co mot nguoi xau xi, ten la Ai Dai Da. Dan ong nao o voi no, nho khong the bo 

dang. Dan ba nao thay no, ve xin cha me rang: tha lam vo be cua no hon lam vo Ion ke khac. 

So nguoi ay co den muoi may roi, the ma cung chua het. Chua thuong nghe no xuong len y 

gi, chi co hoa theo y nguoi ma thoi. Khong co dia vi quyen the gi de cuu nguoi khoi chet; 



khong co tien bac cua cai gi de nuoi ai no bung, lai con hinh thu xau xi de thien ha phai so. 
chi co hoa ma khong co xuong. Tri no khong ra ngoai bon vach rao lang. The ma giong dye 
giong cai lai xum xit truoc mat, ay la ke tat phai co cai gi khac la hon nguoi. Qua nhan trieu 
no den xem, thi qua la hinh thu xau xi lam cho thien ha deu phai so. 6 voi Qua nhan khong 
day mot thang, ma Qua nhan da de y den each an 6 cua no. Khong day mot nam, Qua nhan tin 
no. Nude khong co ke cam quyen chinh, Qua nhan giao viec nuoc cho no. No buon buon, tho 
o ra ve choi tu lam cho Qua nhan ho then. Sau cung no nhan, nhung roi, khong bao lau lai bo 
Qua nhan ma di. Qua nhan buon buc nhu mat mot vat gi, nhu khong con co nguoi de cung vui 
nhu trong nuoc nua! Vay nguoi ay la nguoi the nao?" 

Trong Ni noi: "Khuu nay, rung sang sii ben nuoc So. Thay dan heo con dang bu me, ma me 
chung da chet roi. Mot luc, chung ngo ngac chay tu tan ca vi chung thay me khong nhin den 
chung nua. Chung so di yeu me, khong phai la yeu cai xac kia, ma yeu cai sai khien xac kia 
cua me chung! Ra tran ma chet, dau can phai yen ngua de boc thay. Cho ke cut chan giay dep, 
ho dau co ua thich! Ho deu khong co goc! (...) Nay Ai Dai Da chua noi gi ma nguoi lai tin; 
khong cong gi ma nguoi lai than, khien co nguoi muon trao cho quoc chinh ma lai khong chiu 
nhan, nhu vay at phai la ke toan duoc cai Tai, va khong de 16 ra cai Due." 
Ai Cong noi: Sao goi la "toan duoc cai Tai"? 

Trong Ni noi: "Song Chet, Con Mat, Cung Dat, Giau Ngheo, Hien va Bat Tieu, Khen Che, 
Nong Lanh. . . la nhung cai bien cua su vat, cai chuyen cua Mang (cung nhu) ngay dem thay 
phien tiep noi nhau truoc mat ta ma tri thong minh cua con nguoi cung khong sao nhan thay 
duoc cho khoi dau. Nhu vay, dau co dang gi de cho no lot vao "linh phu", lam loan long 
minh. Ngay ca su han hoan vui mung cung dung de cho long minh day dong. Doi voi tat ca 
moi viec, hoa nha vui tuoi nhu tiep don bon mua. . . Do goi la "toan duoc cai TaiThien. 
The nao la Due khong 16 ra? 

La binh than nhu mat nuoc dung im lim, co the lay do lam khuon phep: ben trong giu: duoc 
that trong sang ma ben ngoai nhu bat dong khong bi 16i cuon theo ngoai vat. Due la thanh 
duoc viec minh ma van giu duoc su hoa voi moi nguoi. Due khong 16 ra nen moi vat khong 

the roi bo duoc minh[xiii]. 

*** 

Ai Cong ngay khac noi chuyen voi Man tu: 

Truoc kia toi cho viec day mat ve phia Nam lam vua thien ha, cam quyen tri dan, lo cho 
chung duoc an ninh, toi tu cho duoc nhu the la thong dat lam roi. Nhung tu khi nghe bac chi 
nhan noi[xiv], toi so khong co thuc tai, khinh dung than minh ma lam mat ca nuoc. Tu day, 
toi va Khong- Khiru se khong con phai la dao vua toi nua, ma la ban voi nhau ve dao due ma 

thoi vay. 

*** 

E. Nhan ky Chi Ly V6 Than thuyet Ve Linh Cong. Linh Cong duyet chi nhi thi toan nhan, ky 

dau kien kien. 

Ung Anh Dai Anh thuyet Te Hoan Cong. Hoan Cong duyet chi, nhi thi toan nhan, ky dau kien 

kien. 

Co due huu so truong nhi hinh huu so vong; nhan bat vong ky so vong, nhi vong ky so bat 

vong thu vi thanh vong[xv]. Co thanh nhan huu so du[xvi] nhi tri vi nghiet[xvii], uoc vi giao 

due vi an, cong vi thuong. Thanh nhan bat muu, 6 dung tri? Bat trac 6 dung giao? V6 tang, 6 

dung due? Bat hoa, 6 dung thuong? Tii gia, Thien Duc[xviii] da, Thien Due da gia, thien thuc 

da. Ky thu thuc u thien, huu 6 dung nhon? Huu nhan chi hinh, vo nhan chi tinh. Huu nhan chi 

hinh, co quan u nhon; vo nhan chi tinh, co thi phi bat dac u than. Dieu ho tieu tai, so di thuoc 

u nhan da, ngao ho dai tai, doc thanh ky thien. 

DiCH NGHiA: 

E. Chi Ly V6 Than vao thuyet Ve Linh Cong. Linh Cong ua thich den doi nhin lai nhung ke 

than hinh toan ven deu co cai co be nho khang khiu! 



Ung Anh Dai Anh vao thuyet Te Hoan Cong. Hoan Cong ua thich den doi nhin lai nhung ke 

than hinh toan ven deu cd cai co be nho khang khiu![xix] 

Cho nen Due ma hon nguoi co the lam cho quen han duoc hinh hai. Nguoi ta (trai lai) khong 

biet quen cai nen quen (hinh hai) ma lai hay quen cai khong nen quen (due), do mdi la that 

quen. Bdi vay, Thanh nhan co cho de ma tu lai[xx]; hieu rang Tri la mam cua toi ac[xxi] the 

udc la keo son, duc[xxii] la noi tiep, cong la buon ban. Thanh nhan khong muu tinh, thi dung 

chi den Tri? Khong deo got thi dung chi den keo? Khong mat tinh thi dung chi den due? 

Khong ban chac thi dung chi den buon? Bon cai do la "Troi nuoi". Troi nuoi, tiic la troi cho 

hap thu (cai mon an cua troi). Da duoc Troi nuoi, can gi dung den nhan tao nua! Thanh nhan 

co cai hinh cua nguoi ma khong co cai tinh cua nguoi. Co cai hinh cua nguoi nen moi cung 

mot dan vdi nguoi. Khong co tinh cua nguoi, nen thi phi moi khong dong duoc long. Cung 

mot dan vdi nguoi la viec nho, ma rieng cung lam mot vdi Troi la viec Ion vay! 

G. Hue tu vi Trang tu viet: 

"Nhan co vo tinh h6?" 

Trang tu viet: Nhien! 

Hue tu viet: Nhan nhi vo tinh, ha di vi chi nhan? 

Trang tu viet: Dao du chi mao, thien da chi hinh, 6 dac bat vi chi nhan? 

Hue- tu viet: Ky vi chi nhan 6 dac vo tinh? 

Trang tu viet: thi phi ngd so vi tinh da, ngo so vi vo tinh gia, ngdn nhan chi bat di hao ac noi 

thuong ky than, thudng nhan tu nhien nhi bat ich sinh da. 

Hue- tu viet: Bat ich sinh[xxiii], ha di huu ky than? 

Trang tu viet: Dao du chi mao thien du chi hinh, vo di hao ac noi thuong ky than. Kim tu 

ngoai ho tu chi than, lao ho tu chi tinh, y thu nhi ngam, cii cao ngd nhi minh, thien tuyen tu 

chi hinh, tu di kien bach[xxiv] minh. 

DICH NGHIA: 

G. Hue- tu goi Trang tu, bao: 

Nguoi ta khong cd tinh hay sao? 

Trang tu ndi: 

Phai! 

Hue- tu ndi: 

Nguoi ma khong cd tinh, thi lay gi goi la nguoi duoc? 

Trang tu ndi: 

Dao ban cho no dung mao, Troi ban cho no hinh hai, sao khong goi la nguoi? 

Hue- tu ndi: 

Da goi la nguoi, ma khong co tinh, duoc khong? 

Trang tu ndi: 

Do khong phai la cai ma tdi goi la Tinh dau? Cho ma tdi goi la khong tinh, chinh la cho tdi 

muon ndi rang con nguoi, ben trong, dung de cho cai tinh cam yeu ghet lam hai den than, 

thuong nen theo le tu nhien ma dung them gi cho thien tinh. 

Hue- tu ndi: 

Khong them cho thien tinh, sao co duoc than? 

Trang tu ndi: 

Dao cho no dung mao, troi cho no hinh hai ben trong, khong de cho su ua ghet lam hai than. 

Nay dng vu cai ben ngoai cua than minh cua ong, de hao ton tinh luc cua dng, ngoi dua cot 

ma ngam vang, bam vao goc ngd can, nham mat lam thinh! Troi da chon cho ong mot cai 

hinh hai nay, dem chi thuyet "kien bach" ma nhoc than. 

TONG BINH: 

Thien Due Sung Phu la de ma giai cai nghia cua thuyet "bat ngdn chi giao" cua Lao tu. 

Thuyet nay goc d chuong thu II cua sach Dao Due Kinh: "Thi di Thanh nhan, xii vd vi chi su, 

hanh bat ngdn chi giao" (Thanh nhan dung "vd vi" ma xu su, dung "bat ngdn" ma day do). 



So di Trang tu, cung nhu Lao tu, chu truong thuyet "bat ngon" la can cii vao ba diem nay: 
Dao ma noi ra duoc, khong con phai la Dao thudng nua. Nghia la Dao la mot le sieu hinh, 
khong the dung loi noi ma truyen day duoc. 

Due ma day du noi trong thi nguoi hoa noi ngoai, tu nhien cam hoa duoc chung quanh, khong 
doi dung den loi mdi day do duoc. 

Nhan theo tu nhien ma khong can phai noi mdi la day. 

*** 

1. Bac thanh nhan khong dung loi noi ma day nguoi, la vi ban ve le Dao, tiic la "cai dieu chi 
co the cam ma khong the noi" khong sao co the duoc, nhat la phai dung den loi noi cua gidi 
tuong doi nhi nguyen. 

Cho nen Lao tu mdi noi: "Tri gia bat ngon, ngon gia bat tri" (biet, thi khong noi; noi, la khong 

biet), la vi "Dao kha Dao, phi thudng Dao". Ke nao tu cho la da hieu Dao va dem cai Dao ay 

ma day ta, la ke doi ta, neu khong phai ho tu doi vdi long. 

Thien Tri Bac Du giai doan nay co noi: "Tri di choi phuong Bac, tdi Huyen- Thuy, len nui a- 

Phan, gap V6- Vi- Vi. 

Tri goi V6- Vi- Vi, bao:" Tdi muon hoi ong it dieu. Nghi lam sao, lo lam sao ma biet duoc 

Dao? Dua vao dau, lam each nao ma hieu duoc Dao? Theo dau va di dudng nao ma tim duoc 

Dao?" 

Hoi ba loi, V6- Vi- Vi khong dap. Chang phai khong dap, ma la khong biet phai dap lam sao. 

Hoi khong duoc, Tri trd lai Bach- Thuy, d phuong Nam, len nui Ho- Quyet, gap Cuong- 

Khuat. Tri cung dem ba cau hoi trudc, hoi Cuong- Khuat. 

Cuong- Khuat noi:" a! Toi biet, de toi noi cho." Nhung, vua muon noi, thi lai quen mat cho 

minh muon noi. 

Tri khong hoi ai duoc, ben trd lai de- cung ra mat Hoang- de de hoi: 

Hoang- de noi: "khong nghi, khong lo mdi biet Dao. Khong dua vao dau, khong lam gi mdi ro 

Dao. Khong theo dau, khong di dudng nao ca mdi duoc Dao." 

Tri hoi Hoang- de:" Tdi citng dng biet Dao chang? Con hai nguoi kia khong biet Dao chang? 

Aiphai?" 

Hoang- de noi:" Vd- Vi- Vi mdi that la phai. Cuong- Khuat cung giong nhu V6- Vi- Vi. Rot 

lai, chi co ta va nguoi la khong gan Dao ma thdi. Va, ke biet thi khong noi, ke noi la khong 

biet. Nen chi, bac Thanh- nhan mdi thuc hanh cai thuyet "bat ngon"!" 

Ay, Dao chang the noi ra dang; noi ra dang chang phai con la cai Dao "thudng" nua. Cho nen 

Trang tu mdi noi: "Ke hoi Dao cung nhu nguoi dap lai deu la nhung ke khong hieu Dao!" 

*** 

2. Thanh nhan biet rang moi vat trong doi deu co cai "Due" cua no, va phan su duy nhat cua 
moi vat la phai biet gin giu cai "Due" ay noi minh cho day du, nghia la lo song cai song ay 
mot each triet de va nuoi dudng no duoc luon luon day du noi trong. due ma day du ben trong 
thi tu nhien ling hien ra ngoai, thien ha nhd do ma tu hoa, dau can phai dung loi noi ma hoa 
ai. Nen mdi goi la "due sung phu", nghia la "due ma day du noi trong, thi nguoi d ngoai nhd 

do ma tu hoa; tu nhien cam hoa, khong phai can dung den loi ma day." 

*** 

"Tai nude Lo, co nguoi cut chin, ten la Vuong Dai. So nguoi theo hoc ngang vdi Trong Ni." 
Thudng Quy hoi Trong Ni: Vuong Dai la ke cut chan lai cung vdi thay chia hai hoc trd nude 
Lo. Nguoi ay, dung thi khong day dieu chi, ngoi thi khong nghi luan viec gi. The ma nguoi 
hoc, den thi khong cd gi ca, ma khi ra ve, thay minh day du. Vay thi, cd loi day ma khong can 
den loi, mac nhien ma cam hoa duoc long nguoi u?" 

"Nude Ve cd mot nguoi xau xi, ten la Ai Dai Da. Dan ong nao d vdi no, nhd khong the bo 
dang. Dan ba nao thay no, ve xin cha me rang: tha lam vo be cua no hon lam vo Ion ke khac 
(...) Chua thudng nghe no xudng len y gi, chi cd hoa theo y nguoi thdi". The ma Lo Ai Cong 
phong cho no chiic Tudng Quoc, no nhan roi tu bo ma di, Ai Cong buon ba den tu thay khong 



lam sao an ui dugc khi mat no. 

*** 

Chi Ly V6 Than, cung nhu Ung Anh Dai Anh, nguoi thi que chan, siit moi, nguoi thi co buou 

di hinh. . . the ma khien cho Ve Linh Cong va Te Hoan Cong ua thich den noi nhin thay ke 

than hinh toan ven deu xau xi ca. 

Cho nen "due ma hon nguoi co the lam cho ta quen han ca hinh hai xau xi". 

Tren day, mot Vuong Dai tan tat, khong noi gi ca ma thien ha tu hoa; mot Ai Dai Da hinh thu 

xau xa, khong noi gi ca ma thien ha deu quen cai xau xi cua hinh thu, du thay rang Due ma du 

noi trong thi nguoi se hop voi moi nguoi, dau doi can phai nhieu loi moi cam hoa. 

*** 

3. Diem thu ba cua thuyet "bat ngon chi giao" la can cii vao ly tu nhien. 
Thien Bien Mau giai rat r5 ve dieu nay: "Thien ha co vat thuong tu nhien nhu vay! Co vat tu 
nhien cong, dau can phai dung den cau moc ! Co vat tu nhien ngay, dau can phai dung den day 
muc! Co vat tu nhien tron, dau can phai dung den cai khuynh! Co vat tu nhien vuong, dau can 
phai dung den thudc nach! Van vat tu nhien chang chit dinh liu nhau, dau can phai dung den 
keo son. Van vat song, dau can gi phai biet vi co gi ma song; dang, cung khong can biet vi sao 
ma dang. Nguyen ly cua cai song va cai dang kia la viec co huu, xua nay khong hai. No la cai 
luat bat di bat dich. Vay thi, vi co gi lai doi dem nhirng thu "nhan, nghia, le, nhac" nhiing soi 
day nhon tao de ma troi buoc thien ha, khien cho thien ha lam lac ! " 

Do goi la le thuong nhien, tiic la le tu nhien. Tu nhien la cai le phai nhu vay, vi no phai nhu 
vay, khong vay khong dang. [xxv]Da nhan theo le tu nhien, thi hay de cho van vat tu nhien 
song theo cai song cua no, can gi phai dung den loi noi ma lam chi? 



V&i nhan quang Nhi nguyen, thi ngay trong than the cua ta se thay cdc tang phu nhu la 

nghich v&i nhau ca (nhu nu&c S& nu&c Viet each biet nhau vay). 

[ii] Tuc la quen mat ca thanh sac thi phi, my ac... 

[Hi] (due chi hoa), tuc la "hoa " cua dqo va due, tuc la cho ma Lao Tu goi "thuong due bat 

due " cai due sieu viet cua dqo gom nam ca thi phi, thien ac... 

[iv] Cai "biet" day, la am chi "chan tri" (cai biet that). 

[v] Tarn thuong: tuc la cai tarn thuong- tru, bat bien dong v&i Dqo thuong noi mink Chu 

"tarn " tru&c, la dm chi cai tarn bat thu&ng, con vong dong cua minh. 

[vi] Chu "toi" & day co nghia la "tu": hop lai, tuu lai. inoi, tqi sao chung nhan lai tuu ve theo 

ong ta (Vuong dai). 

[vii] Khong ai lai di cau hoc noi mot ke ma long con vong dong (ndo loan vi ngoqi vat), chi 

co su diem dam hu vo la dqc tdnh cua bqc thanh nhan song giua su ndo dong khong dung cua 

thien ha, cung nhu moi thu cay coi deu thu mqng noi ddt, the ma chi rieng co cay tung cay 

bach thi canh la bon mua van xanh tuoi khong thay doi... vi no con giu duac dqc tinh tru&ng 

xudn cua no. 

[viii] Chu chinh day, la chinh ky. 

Chu sinh day, nguyen la chu Tinh, hay la Ban Tinh (theo Qudch Tuong). 

[ix] Chong lai v&i tu each "khuyen du " ngu&i theo dqo cua phdn dong cdc ton giao. 

[x] Tu San dang la Tu&ng quoc nu&c Trinh. 

[xi] Ten cua mot ngu&i xua co tdi ban cung khong ai bi kip. 

[xii] Xuc quy: la ky di 

[xiii] Dai y la noi ve Due diem dam, khong de cho ngoqi vat dong duac Tarn minh. 

[xiv] Tuc la Khong- tu (thay l&i Trang- tu ma gidng ve le Dqo cho Ai Cong). 

[xv] Hinh thi nen quen; ma due, thi khong nen quen. 

[xvi] Du: la rong choi trong coi hu khong. 

[xvii] Hodc viet la "yeu nghiet". 

[xviii] Chu "chuc" day phdt dm la due, tuc la "nuoi du&ng". 



[xix] Chi Ly Vd Than, Id ngu&i co hinh the chia lia nhu que chdn vd sirt moi (xdu xi, ky di). 

irng dnh Dai Anh, tire la ngu&i co bu&u di hinh. Nhdn day ma goi ten. 

Thich cdi dep ben trong, den quen cd su xdu xi cua hinh hdi ben ngodi: do la cdi thich den tot 

do. 

Trong Tinh su Trung Hoa co chep cdu chuyen mot chdng trai si tinh mot ngu&i dan bd mot 

mat, bay gi& trong thien ha anh ta nhin lai tat cd moi ngu&i dan bd khdc trong nu&c deu co 

thira mot mat cd. 

fxxj Nghia den la "rong choi", ma nghia bong, la tieu dieu tu ddc, de cho cdi tarn ung dung 

linh hoqt trong cdi Hu Vd, tire la da den cdi "todn dire" rdi vdy. 

[xxi] Nghiet, tire la yeu nghiet, la tdi dc. Tu Ma ban rang: "Tritue sinh yeu nghiet" 

fxxiij Due & day, la dm chi le nghia. So sdnh v&i cdu "Dai Dqo phi, hiru Nhdn Nghia " (Lao 

tuD.D.K) 

[xxiii] Sinh: & day cung nghia v&i chu tinh. 

[xxiv] Kien bach: la thuyet bien ludn cua Cong ton Long, tire la thuyet "bach ma kien thqch ". 

Trang- tu che Hue- thi khong biet thien du&ng thien chdn, sudt d&i bien ludn de tieu hao sinh 

luc trong nhung cdi hoc tranh bien vd ich cho con du&ng gidi thodt. 

[xxv] Bat ddc bat nhien. 

NAM HOA KINH - HOC THUYET CUA TRANG TTJ : 

IV. HOC THUYET CUA TRANG TLT: 

A. Dao va Diic: 

Triet hoc cua Trang tu - cung vai Lao tu co nhieu diem khong dong, nhung rat dong ve quan 

niem Dao va Due. 

Ban ve Dao, sach Trang tu o thien Tri- Bac- Du co giai rat ro rang: 

" Dong- Quach- Tu hoi Trang tu: 

Cai goi la Dao o dau? 

Khong co cho nao la khong co No. 

Xin chi ra moi duoc ! 

Trong con kien. 

Thap hon nua! 

Trong cong co. 

Thap hon nua! 

Trong mieng sanh vd. 

Thap hon nua! 

Trong cue phan. 

Dong- Quach- Tu khong hoi nua. 

Trang tu noi: " Loi hoi cua ong, khong di den dau ca. No giong each nguoi giam thi dung de 

tri dung de tri gia heo: moi Ian dap tren lung heo la moi Ian an manh cang xuong them. Ong 

dung co chi nan vao mot vat nao co No, vi khong co vat nao la khong co No. Dao la the, ma 

loi noi cao ca cung the. Nhu ba tieng nay:" deu", " cung", " ca thay" tuy danh tu goi co khac, 

ma tuu trung deu ham cung mot y." 

*** 

Dao la Nguyen- Ly tuyet doi sinh ra Troi Dat Van- vat. Cho nen he co Vat, tuc la co Dao, 

nghia la" khong co cho nao la khong co Dao". 

*** 

Thien Dai- Tong- Su noi:" Kia Dao thi co tinh, co tin, khong lam, khong hi en, co the nhan 
duoc ma khong the thay duoc. Dao thi tu ban tu can, khi chua co Troi Dat von da ton tai tu 
xua. No lam ra cac dang thieng lieng quy than, cung Thuong de; No sinh ra Troi, Dat; No o 
truoc Thai Cue ma khong xem la cao, o duoi luc- cue ma chang thay la sau; No sinh trudc 
Troi Dat ma chang goi la lau, dai hon Thuong Co ma chang goi la gia". (Phu Dao huu tinh, 



him tin, vo vi vo hinh; kha truyen nhi bat kha thu, kha dac nhi bat kha kien; tu ban tu can, vi 
huu thien dia, ty co di co ton; than quy than de, sinh thien sinh dia, tai thai eye chi tien nhi bat 
vi cao, tai luc cue nhi ha chi bat vi tham, tien thien dia sinh nhi bat vi cuu, truong u thuong co 
nhi bat vi lao) 

Dao la Nguyen- ly sinh ra Troi Bat Van- Vat nen goi la" tu ban tu can", nghia la tu minh la 
goc, la re cua minh, chii khong phai do mot goc hay mot re nao khac ngoai minh tao ra. Dao 
cung la" vo thuy vo chung", " thuong ton bat bien" va van vat dua vao do ma sinh sinh khong 

dung vay. 

*** 

Dao, nhu ta da thay, bieu- hien noi van su van vat, bdi vay, khong su vat nao la khong co cai 
tinh" tu sinh", " tu truong", " tu huy", " tu diet" cua no. Nhu the, ta co the noi rang su" tu 
sinh, tu truong, tu huy, tu diet" cua van- su van vat chinh la nhung hanh dong" tu vi, tu hda" 
cua moi su vat trong doi, ma ta cung co the goi do la" cho tac- vi cua Dao" ma khong sai, vi" 
khong co vat nao la khong co Dao" d trong ca. Hai chu" tu- hoa" cua Trang, chinh la thuyet" 

vo- vi nhi vo bat vi" cua Lao tu. 

*** 

Con quan niem ve chu Due cua Trang tu nhu the nao? 

Thien Thien- Dia co noi:" Thud thai- so cua Troi Dat thi da co cai Vo. Cai Vo ay khong co 

ten, va la noi phat sinh ra cai Mot, nhung cai Mot ay cung chua co hinh. Khi ma van vat" 

duoc cai Mot ay (2) cai do goi la Due". " Thai so huu Vo, Vo huu Vo danh. Nhat chi so khoi, 

huu Nhat nhi vi hinh. Vat dac di sinh, vi chi Due." 

Trong cau" thai so huu Vo", chii Vo day la chi ve Dao. Cau" nhat chi so khoi" cua Trang tu " 

Vo la cho phat sinh ra cai Mot" thi dong vdi cau" Dao sinh Nhat" cua Lao tu trong Dao- Diic- 

Kinh. Con Due tiic la cho ma "vat dac di sinh" (vat nhan duoc ma song) . Cho nen moi noi" 

Due la cho" tu dac cua con nguoi". " Tu dac" la tu minh da duoc cua Tao Hoa, cua Tu- nhien, 

cua Dao (3) . Hay noi mot each khac: Due la cai Dao bieu hien noi moi nguoi moi vat, la 

nhung nang khieu tu nhien, khong vay khong duoc, cua moi su vat tren doi. 

Dao va Due, tuy danh tu dung de goi co khac, nhung van la mot. Co ke da vi Dao nhu nude. 

Nude la song, bien, ao, ho. . . cung nhu d bau trdn, ong thang, du cd hinh thiic dong tinh khac 

nhau, nhung dau dau cung la nude ca. 



■■■■]- •■. 



B. Thuyet Thien- Quan: 

Trang tu, trong thien Te- Vat- Luan, dung hai chii Thien- Quan de chi cai tac dung cua Dao, 
la cd y chi cho ta thay no la mot thii triet hoc bien dong nghia la" van hanh bat tuc" 
" Quan" la cai banh xe quay tron ma nguoi tho nung dung de che tao nhung do vat cd hinh 
tron. Chu" Thien- Quan" lai cd cho viet la cd y ndi ve su quan- binh, tuy cai banh xe luu 
chuyen, vdng ban kinh cua banh xe bao gid cung bang nhau, tu nhien ludn ludn van quan 
binh. d thien Ngu- Ngdn cd ndi:" Van vat deu la mot giong ca, khong citng hinh ma thay 
nhau, trudc sau nhu nhiing cai vdng tron, khong the phan biet luan loai. Nen goi la Thien- 
quan. Thien- quan, la Thien- Nghe". " Van vat giai chung da, di bat dong hinh tuong thien 
thuy tot nhuoc hoan, mac dac ky luan. Thi vi Thien- quan. Thien- quan gia, Thien- Nghe da". 
Thien Thien Dia lai ndi:" Troi Dat tuy Ion, ma su bien hoa deu quan binh ca" (Thien dia tuy 
dai, ky hda quan da.) 

Nhu the thi, Thien- quan cua Trang tii la ndi ve su dap doi nhau cua cac giong vat ma bien 
hoa, " dong hinh" bien lam" bat dong hinh". Nhung d dau ma lai, roi se di den dau, thdi sau 
cung cung khong biet dau la manh moi. Su bien hda giong nhu cai banh xe quay tron, nen goi 

la Thien- quan. 

*** 

C. Thuyet Van- Hda: 

Cii theo phep ay thi su bien thien cua cac giong vat deu khong cd muc dich, khong co phuong 



huong. . . con dudng do cua van sir van vat la mot cai vong tron:" chau nhi phuc thuy", chu 

khong phai la mot con dudng thang di den mot muc tieu nao. Trang tu khong chu truong 

Tien- hda, ma chu tnrong Van hda, hay la Tu-hda. 

Thien Thu- Thuy ndi:" Van- vat sinh ra, nhu duoi nhu chay; he dong la co bien, khong luc nao 

ma khong xe dich. Sao lai nhu the, ma sao lai chang nhu the? ay la vi cai le" tu hoa" vay! (Vat 

chi sinh gia, nhuoc sau nhuoc tri, vo dong nhi bat bien, vo thoi nhi bat di, ha vi ho, ha bat vi 

ho. Phit co tuong tu hoa) . 

Thien Tai- Huu noi:" Anh hay chi cii ngoi day, khong can lam gi ca ma van vat tu hoa. . . van 

vat phon thinh, giong nao cung tro lai nguon goc cua minh. Vat nao cung tro lai goc cua minh 

ma khong biet". Trong cau van nay, quan trong nhat la d chu" Phuc". 

d thien Thien- Thuy trong sach Liet- tu cung co cau noi:" Tu sinh, tu hoa, tu co hrnh, tu co 

sac, tu co tri, tu co luc, tu giam, tu tang". The la deu" tu nhien nhi nhien", " bat ky nhirn nhi 

nhien", khong co su nhat dinh phai bao ton nhung hrnh thiic ca biet nao co fch, tieu diet 

nhung hrnh thiic ca biet nao co hai nhu each tac dung cua luat Thien- trach (4) co muc dich, 

co phuong huong cua thuyet Tien- hoa Tay phuong (5) . 

So dr Trang tu khong chu truong Tien- hoa, ma lai chu truong Van- Hoa la vr theo su nhan 

xet cua ong, ong cho rang khong the nao xet biet duoc le chung thuy cua Dao, nghra la khong 

the nao biet duoc rang Dao bat dau nhu the nao, va su cung tan cua no nhu the nao. Nhu vay, 

thr lam the nao ma nhan thay duoc cai phuong huong cua no theo chieu nao ma chu truong 

Tien- hoa duoc? Tien- hoa chi la mot lie thuyet cua Tao- Hoa, trong khi su that Troi Dat 

khong the biet dau la khoi diem, dau la cung tan, ma chi la mot cai" vong tron" (Thien- Quan) 

Thien Tac- Duong noi:" Van vat co song ma khong thay dau la cai goc cua no, co cho xuat ra 
ma khong thay dau la cai cua cua no". Lai noi:" Nguoi xet Dao, khong theo cho den cho da 
phe, cung khong suy cho den cho chua khoi: he ban den no la phai thoi di. Ta xet cai goc cua 
no, ta thay no di den vo cung, ta cau den cai ngon cua no, ta lai thay no khong bao gio diit. 
Khong cirng, khong diit, thi con ban noi vao dau duoc nua. Vat, thi cung mot le do", 
o thien Son- Moc cung noi:" Hoa muon vat ma khong biet no thay doi nhu the nao, thoi biet 

no bat dau ra lam sao, ma cung tan ra lam sao?" 

*** 

Doi vdi nhan- su cung the: phai bien thanh quay, quay bien thanh phai. . . khong biet dau la 

khoi diem, khong biet dau la cung tan. . . nhu tren mot cai" vong tron"; Ldn; Nho; Sanh; Tu; 

Dai; Ngan; Co; Khong; Cao; Thap; Thanh Hoai deu khong sao phan biet duoc (6) , khong sao 

biet duoc dau la cho khoi dau cua no. 

Thien Thu- Thuy noi:" Lay Dao ma xem thr vat khong co chi goi la quy, la tien, la ft, la nhieu 

ca. Chi co Mot ma thoi. Lay cho sai biet ma xet, nhan thay Ion ma cho la Ion, thr van vat 

khong vat nao la khong Ion, nhan thay nho ma cho la nho, thr van vat khong vat nao la khong 

nho. . . Lay xu huong ma xet, nhan cho phai la phai, thr van vat khong vat gr la khong phai, 

nhan cho quay la quay, thr van vat khong vat gr la khong quay." 

Thien Due- Sung- Phu noi:" Lay cho khac nhau ma xet, thr gan va mat each nhau nhu nude 

So nude Viet, nhung ma lay cho tong ma xet, thr van vat deu la Mot ca. 

Cii xem cai thuyet Tuong doi ngay nay ma xem, ta se thay cung khong xa gi nhirng dieu nhan 

xet tren day cua Trang tu. Theo Tuong- doi- luan thr quyet khong cd gr la cao, la thap tuyet 

doi; khong cd gr la dai, la ngan tuyet doi; khong cd gr la ldn, la nho tuyet doi: nhung tieng 

nhu" thanh"," huy", " quy", " tien", " thi", "phi", " huu"," vd" toan la nhung danh- tu tuong 

doi, khong phai la tuyet doi. Cho nen cho rang Trang tu la ti- to cria thuyet" tuong doi" khong 

phai la qua dang. 

Cai luat Thien- Quan cria Trang tu lai bao ham ca con nguoi trong do:" Cho nen Thanh- nhan 

hoa le Thi- phi, va rot cuoc d trong Thien- Quan". 

Thien Dai- Tdng- Su noi:" Nhu cai hinh cria nguoi ta, that la bien hda mudn Ian, ma chua thay 



dau la cung tan vay". Lai cung noi:" Gia nhu canh tay trai toi hoa lam con ga, thi toi se nhan 

do ma gay canh. Gia nhu lai hoa canh tay phai toi lam hon dan, toi se nhan do ma kiem chim 

quay; gia nhu lai hoa cai xuong cun cua toi lam banh xe, lay cai than hon toi lam con ngya, 

thi toi se nhan do ma cuoi len, ha con phai doi xe ngira nao nua!..." Lon lao thay! Tao hoa 

muon anh lam vat gi bay gio? Muon di den dau bay gio? Hay la bien anh lam gan con chuot? 

Hay lam canh trung?" (...)" Nay co nguoi tho due vang, vang nhay len doi: toi muon duoc 

lam thanh guom mac- da, nguoi tho due tat cho no la vang quai go. Nay co ke ngau nhien 

muon duoc hinh nguoi, nhay len noi: Toi muon lam nguoi. . . tao hoa tat cho nguoi ay la 

nguoi quai go. Nay lay Troi Bat lam 16 Ion, Tao- hoa lam nguoi tho due Ion, thoi tha ho 

muon bien hoa ra sao thi bien hoa, dau ma chang duoc." 

Loai nguoi bien hoa vo cung, nhung khong co phuong hudng nao nhat dinh ca: Pham vat, he" 

cung tac phan" " chung tac thuy" loay quay mai theo" vong tron" vo tan. 

Tuy Trang tu chu truong" tu hoa" va" van hoa", khong chu truong su bien hoa co phuong 

huong nhu thuyet" luan hoi" cua Phat giao tieu- thuam hay thuyet" thien trach" cua Darwin, 

nhung lai noi den su bien hoa theo mot cai" Co". Thien Chi- Lac noi:" Cac giong deu co Co" 

va ket luan rang:" Van vat deu ra noi Co, va vao noi Co. Theo Trang tu thi" Co" la cai nguon 

goc cua su bien doi, va rut lai, quy ket vao hai chu" due tinh". 

Lay theo thuyet Thien- Quan ma xet viec doi thi thay cac su vat deu chang chit dinh liu voi 

nhau, nhan roi qua, qua roi nhan tiep tuc nhau khong biet dau la khoi diem, dau la cung tan, 

nhu tren mot cai" vong tron". 

Be chi su phiic tap trong cac moi quan he, thien Son- Moc noi:" Trang Chau di choi o rung 

Bieu- Lang, thay mot con chim tuoc la o phuong Nam lai, canh rong bay thuoc, mat tron mot 

tac, dung o tran Chau ma dau o bui cay lat. Trang Chau noi: chim nay la chim gi vay? Canh to 

ma khong bay, mat Ion ma khong nhin. ben dung dang dung budc, lay dan ra nham ban. Bong 

thay mot con ve, vua duoc bong mat ma quen ca than. Mot con bo ngua, lay la che than, 

chom den muon bat lay ma quen ca than. Con phia sau, con tuoc dang vo bat no ma quen ca 

thanminh... 

Trang Chau giat minh: Oi! Giong vat von lam luy nhau. . . hai loai nhu goi Ian nhau. 

Roi bo vien dan ma chay tro ve. . . " 

Xem do, tuy la mot cau chuyen ngu ngon, nhung ma y vi sau sac mieu ta duoc nhiing moi 

quan he trong vu tru phiic tap la chung nao, that la dieu kho the tu- nghi duoc. 

Trang tu noi:" Bot, them; day, voi; mot toi, mot sang" la muon bao luat Thien- Quan bao- 

quat ca hai coi toi, sang ay. Cau noi nay cua Liet- tu:" mot vat the, khi day, khi voi, khi them, 

khi bot, khi sang, khi toi deu co cam thong voi Troi, Bat, ling voi vat loai" co the bao- quat va 

cai quan ca cai luat Thien- Quan. 

Theo luat Tien- hoa, hay tu- trach thi cac giong vat cang bien, cang khong binh dang. Con 

theo luat Thien- quan thi cac giong vat cang bien lai cang theo ve binh dang, du cho hinh chat 

khong binh dang, dia vi khong binh dang ma Tanh va Phan van binh dang. (Xem Tieu- Bieu- 

Bu va Te- Vat- Luan) . 

B6 la su phan biet quan trong nhat trong hai thuyet Tien- hoa va Van- hoa. 

*** 

Tom lai, ta co the lay cau nay cua Trang tu dLao chi luat Thien- Quan " truoc sau nhu cai 

vong ". 

*** 

Voi hai chii " tu hoa", Trang tu khong thua nhan co mot" Bang tao hoa " dung ngoai va lam 
chua te Vu Tru Van Vot, ma lai cho rang ngay o moi vat, tu cue nho toi cue Ion, deu co cai 
sue " tu sinh", "tu hoa" co the duoc xem nhu mot dang" tieu tao hoa" hay" tieu hoa cong". 
Cho nen trong thien Te- Vot- Luan moi noi:" Troi Bat cung ta dong sinh, van vat cung ta 
dong nhat". Van vat dong nhat the, do la danh tu tong quat de chi Vu- tru- quan cua Trang tu. 
Thuyet Van- hoa Thien- quan cua Trang tu, nhu tren day da noi co the tuong trung bang mot 



cai" vong 6c" khong the Ian Ion voi thuyet Luan- Hoi cua Nha Phat (tieu- thua) . 
Thuyet Luan- Hoi cua Phat- giao tieu thua, tuu trung la mot hinh thiic cua thuyet Tien Hoa, 
cho nen nguoi ta quan trong ve van de qua tri cao thap: mot ao vong cua Ban Nga. Vi vay, 
diing ve phuong dien Giai thoat, thi thuyet Luan- Hoi phai thua xa thuyet Vin- Hoa Binh- 
dang cua Trang tiiNhan 

That vay, con nguoi so di no le, la vi con bi cai So chi phoi tinh than. So du thii, nhung cai 
dang so nhat cua con nguoi la so chet, va cai canh sau khi chet. Thuyet Luan- Hoi cua tieu 
thua Phat giao an ui duoc long thac mac ban khoan ay, va bao dam duoc rang loai nguoi se 
tien mai: het loai thu, den loai nguoi, roi den loai tien, loai phat. . . Con nguoi cang" tien" 
chung nao, thi long khao khat len" cao" lai cang tang va long" no le", ngdi vi dang cap se 
cang nang chung ay, nghia la long giai thoat cai So se khong bao gio giam bdt va diit duoc. 
Trai lai, voi thuyet Binh- dang cua Trang tu, can cii vao thuyet Van- hoa Thien- Quan cho 
rang nguoi la Dao, nguoi ma thuc hien duoc cai Dao noi minh roi, thi no se" tu sinh", " Tu 
Hoa" nhu Troi Dat, nen" toan man" ma khong con cai bung deo bong tham muon nhung gi 
khac ngoai cai Tanh- Phan cua minh niia:" Van vat du nga dong nhat". Mien giu gin duoc 
Thien- chan, ngoai ra cuoc doi hay nen xu nhu Trang Chau hoa buom". Trang Chau chiem 
bao thay minh la Buom. Trong khi lam buom, quen lung minh la nguoi, va vi thich voi phan 
buom. Neu dung theo Trang Chau ma luan, va thu hoi Trang Chau co chiu doi cai kiep nguoi 
cua minh de lam phan con buom, thi Trang Chau at khong chiu. Nhung, neu dung theo con 
buom ma xem, va xin dem doi cai kiep con buom lam phan con nguoi nhu Trang Chau, at 
con buom cung khong muon. Lam nguoi chua at la vui hon lam Vot, va nhu the Vot va Ta la 
binh dang vay." Gia canh tay trai ta la con ga, thi ta nhan do ma gay canh. . ." Minh la Dao, thi 
Dao noi ta hoa ra cai gi thi hoa, sao ma phai lo so? Ta co the tu noi voi minh:" Ldn lao thay! 
Tao hoa noi ta. Nguoi muon ta di den dau bay gio? Hay la nguoi muon bien ta lam gan con 
chuot, hay lam canh trung?" Voi mot nhan- sinh- quan nhu the, thi lam gi con no le lay nhung 
cai so hao huyen de ma tranh gianh Cao Thap, Ldn Nho, Vinh Nhuc. . .? Cho nen giai thoat 
tinh than con nguoi khoi cai" so" thien nien giam ham doi minh trong due vong va bong toi, 
qua thuyet Luan- hoi cua Phat giao tieu thua phai kem xa thuyet Thien- Quan Van- Hoa ct 

Trang tu neu khong noi rang bat- luc. 

*** 

D. Hanh- Phuc Ca- Nhan va Xa- Hoi: 

Trang tu cho rang" het thay van vat deu do Dao ma ra, va moi vat deu co cai Due cua no, 

nghia la, het thay van vat, moi vat deu co cai tanh tu nhien cua no. Neu biet thuan theo tanh tu 

nhien ma song, thi hanh phuc co ngay trong luc do, khong phai cau canh dau khac o ngoai." 

Duoc phat trien tu do ban tanh la dieu kien dau tien dua ta den hanh phuc, mot thu hanh phuc 

tuong doi di nhien. Muon dat den Hanh phuc tuyet doi phai can den mot thu tri thuc sieu 

nhien huyen dieu hon, hie la cai ma Lao tu goi" tri bat tri, thuong". 

Thuong thim so di ban tanh con nguoi khong duoc tu do phat trien la do su rang buoc, uon 

nan cua che do, giao due, luan ly gia tao cua xa hoi ben ngoai. Bdi vay Trang hoc, cung nhu 

Lao hoc het sue phan doi nhan tao ma de cao cai song can voi thien nhien. 

o thien Thu- Thuy Trang tu noi:" Thien tai noi, nhon tai ngoai (...) Nguu ma hi tuc thi vi 

Thien; lac ma thu, xuyen ngiru ti thi vi Nhon" (Troi o ben trong, nguoi d ben ngoai (...) Bo 

ngua bon chan, do la Troi, khdp dau ngua, xo mui bo, do la Nguoi) ong lai noi:" Cho lay 

nguoi ma giet Troi! Cho lay nhan tao ma giet Thien Mang! Cho lay duoc ma chet theo danh! 

Giu can than, dung lam mat Thien chan! do la trd ve cai Chan cua minh!" 



* * * 



" Trd ve cai Chan cua minh!" (" phan ky chan") hay la" phuc ky bon" tuc la dao" Giai thoat: 
trd ve Ban tanh nhu Nha Phat khuyen ta" minh tarn, kien tanh" vay. Cho nen, khong the hieu 
mot each qua gian luge va sai ngoa rang thuyet" thuan Thien, an Mang" cua ong la thai do 
tieu cue, nhy nhuoc, phd mac cho so phan ma xa hoi da an bai cho ta, ra sao hay vay. " trd ve 



cai Chan cua minh" phai la mot cuoc dai- each- mang moi thoat khoi gong kem xa hoi cang 
ngay cang phu lap va mai mot Thien- Chan. Cho nen Trang tu moi khuyen ta:" Chd co lay cai 
Ta xa hoi, cai Ta nhan tao do luan ly, giao due, che do cau thanh ma giet chet Thien- tinh!" 

(V6 di nhon diet Thien) 

*** 

Van vat, vat nao cung co cai tanh tu nhien cua no, va noi ve nang khieu tu nhien thi khong vat 
nao la giong vat nao ca. Co dieu la, neu moi vat, vat nao cung duoc phat trien tu do nang 
khieu tu nhien cua minh thi vat ay duoc ngay hanh phuc. 

Trong thien Tieu- Dieu- Du, Trang tu muon co tao ra mot vat cue dai (la ca Con, chim Bang) 
va vat cue tieu (con ve va con cuu) de chiing minh rang nang khieu tu nhien cua moi vat hoan 
toan khac nhau. Vat cue dai nhu chim Bang, moi khi muon den bien Nam phai" dap tren mat 
nuoc ba nghin dam dai, len theo gio trot chin muon dam cao, va bay tron sau thang khong 
nghi" (...)" Con chim cuu va con ve, thay vay, cuoi noi: Ta thich bay vut len cay du, cay 
phuong. . . neu co liic bay khong toi ma co rot xuong dat thi cung khong sao. Sao lai phai len 
chi toi chin muon dam cao, bay qua bien Nam ma lam gi?" 

Neu moi vat deu biet du voi Tanh Troi cua minh, thi tuy Dai Bang, khong xem minh la cao 
quy hon chim nho ma tu cao, ma chim nho nhu chim cuu cung khong xem minh la thap hen 
ma deo bong ham muon den Ao Troi lam gi nhu chim Bang! Ldn, nho tuy khac nhau, nhung 
moi vat neu biet thuan theo cai tanh tu nhien cua minh, biet an theo cai phan cua minh, thi deu 
duoc tieu dieu (tu do) khong sai ca. 

Su vat tren doi khong giong nhau, nhung cung khong nen cau cho het thay deu giong voi 
nhau. La vi khong the nao cau cho duoc. Su binh dang tu nhien khong co va khong bao gio co 
tren doi nay. Thien Bien Mau co noi:" Cang vit thi ngan, co ma noi dai, no kho. Do hac thi 
dai, co ma lam cho ngan, no dau. Cho nen Tanh ma dai, khong phai cai nen chat bdt; tanh ma 
ngan, khong phai cai nen keo dai, thi sao co dau kho!" 



* * * 



D. Quan niem ve Xa- hoi va Chinh- tri: 

" Dung mong keo cang vit cho dai, thu do hac ngan lai" nhung do lai la cong viec lam cua cac 
nha xa hoi chinh tri" huu vi" tu ngan xua vay. 

Muc tieu chinh cua cac nha lam luat phap, cac luan ly gia, cac che do chinh tri. . . phai chang 
deu co tham vong san bang moi ca tinh dac biet, binh dang hoa tat ca moi bat binh dang tu 
nhien trong thien ha. . . bien moi ca nhan thanh mot con nguoi song theo xa hoi, theo che do," 
thich theo cai thich cua moi nguoi ma khong biet thich theo cai thich cua minh" (7) 
Theo Trang tu, Tanh (tu nhien) cua van vat, thi khong dong nhau: moi vat deu co cho nhan 
cho la dep, la hay, la phai, rieng cua vat ay. Cho nen khong can phai cuong ep cho tat ca deu 
dong nhau, ma cung khong sao cuong ep cho dong duoc. Cho khong dong cua van vat, ta phai 
biet nhan lanh no, biet" chiu" no, do tiic la dung cho" khong dong" ma lam cho" dong" vay. 
Trai lai tat ca moi che do chinh tri, xa hoi theo huu vi deu dinh ra" mot cai tot" de lam tieu- 
chuan chung cho moi tu tuong hanh vi, khien nguoi nguoi deu phai theo no ma hanh dong. do 
la ep nhiing cho khong dong phai dong nhau. Yeu, ma yeu theo cho thich rieng cua minh, la 
lam dau kho cho vat minh yeu vay. Cho nen cac bac thanh nhan lap ra " quy cu chuan thang" 
cung cac thu quy tac che do de dinh che chanh tri xa hoi, khien cho nguoi nguoi trong thien 
ha deu phai phuc rung theo, cho dung tarn, tuy chua phai la khong co ly do chanh dang va tot 
dep, va cho dung y tuy khong phai la khong thuc yeu nguoi. . . nhung, ket qua thi lai nhu L6- 
Haunuoi chim... 

" Xua kia, co con chim bien dau o cua thanh nuoc L6. . . L6 hau ngu ra ra nghinh tiep, ruoc ve 
chuoc ruou o den Thai- mieu, cho tau nhac Cuu thieu cho no vui, giet trau bo moi no an. . . 
Chim ay ngo don dac, bo sau bi khong dam an, dam uong. Cach ba horn thi chet. do la dung 
each nuoi nguoi ma nuoi chim. Neu nhu muon dung each nuoi chim ma nuoi chim, thi phai de 
cho no dau o rung sau, dao ngoai go dat, troi noi song ho, kiem an luon ca, do theo hang liet, 



ung dung tu dac, thich dau a do. Cii nghe nguoi noi la no khong ua roi, lira la con dem tieng 

nhac ma lam cho no kinh tarn. Neu dem nhac Ham tri, Cuu thieu ma danh len d Dong- dinh, 

thi chim nghe phai bay, thu nghe phai chay, ca nghe phai Ian. . . nhmig nguoi ta thi lai keo 

nhau den do ma nghe. Ca d duoi nude thi song, nguoi d duoi nude thi chet. Do va day da 

khac nhau, thi su ua ghet cung khac nhau. Boi vay, bac thanh ngay xua khong giong nhau ve 

so nang, nen khong giong nhau ve su nghiep". (Chi- Lac) 

Nhu vay, ta thay rang khong phai L6 Hou khong co thien y, nhung ket qua thi lai khac nan 

vdi y muon cua minh: hai ma khong co loi. do cung la hau qua cua nhung ke muon dung luat 

phap, luan ly de ma dien che tu tuong hanh vi cua thien ha. 

Boi the, Trang hoc cue luc phan doi cai each " lay tri ma tri thien ha" (di tri, tri thien ha) . 

Muon khien cho thien ha duoc tri, khong chi bang" lay su khong tri, ma tri thien ha" (di bat 

tri, tri thien ha) . Thien Tai- Huu noi:" Ta nghe phong va giu thien ha, chii khong nghe 

chuyen tri thien ha. Phong, la so thien ha dam duoi ma mat tanh; giu la so thien ha doi doi ma 

mat due. Thien ha ma khong dam duoi den mat TanThien, khong doi doi den mat Due, thi sao 

lai co chuyen tri thien ha?" Du sao di nua, bat dac di ma phai dung den luat phap, luan ly, 

chinh tri, che do. . . thi luat phap, luan- ly, chinh tri, che do cung phai co muc dich duy nhat 

nay la phung su cho ca nhan, chii khong duoc dem" Nguoi ma giet Troi, dem nhan tao ma 

giet thien nhien..." 

Lao tu va Trang tu deu chii truong" V6 vi nhi tri", mot che do khong co che do, mot chanh the 

khong co chanh the, nhung moi nguoi theo nhiing ly do rieng. 

Lao tu thi nhan manh ve Dao, va van de phan- phuc:" Phan gia Dao chi dong". Con Trang tu 

thi nhan manh ve su phan biet giua thien nhien va nhan tao:" nguoi khong duoc giet Troi, 

nhan tao khong duoc Ian thien nhien", vi lam the la lam cho nhan dan thong kho: khong phat 

trien duoc tu do Ban tanh cua minh. 

*** 

E. Van de Hanh- Phuc tuong doi va tuyet doi: 

Cai hanh phuc noi tren day, chi la mot thu hanh phuc tuong doi, vi no con phai co dieu kien, 

nghia la con phai tuy thuoc vao cai gi. That vay, nguoi ta so di co duoc hanh phuc la khi nao 

duoc tu do song theo ban tanh cua minh. 

Nhu vay, xa hoi, che do. . . nhu da noi tren, chi la mot trong nhung dieu kien khong thuan tien 

cho su phat trien tu do ban tanh con nguoi tren con duong hanh phuc. 

Cung co nhieu tro ngai khac khong kem quan trong khien cho ta kho thuc hien duoc hanh 

phuc, la van de" lao", "benh", va "tu". Nhu vay, ta thay rang Phat giao khong phai la khong co 

ky, khi ho de xuong thuyet" sanh, lao, benh, tu: kho" nguoi tu do khong nhung khong bi rang 

buoc ve phap luat, luan ly, che do, xa hoi ben ngoai, ma cung la nguoi khong con so gia, so 

benh, so chet nua. 

Gia khong dang so. dang so la nen so cai gia ma day benh tat. Vi vay, nguoi ta muon duoc 

hanh phuc, cung phai biet lo den phep duong sinh. Nguoi manh khoe khong so gia, cung 

khong so chet nua. Trong moi tai hoa, tai hoa dang so nhat cua con nguoi la tat- benh. Nguoi 

hay dau yeu, benh tat la nguoi de sa vao ich ky: thuong san soc sam soi den than the nen de 

dem long quyen luyen va yeu thuong. Lao tu cung da co noi:" Ngo so di hiiu dai hoan gia, vi 

ngo huu than. Cap ngo vo than, ngo huu ha hoan!" (Chuong 13 Dao- Due- Kinh) . Cho nen, 

duong sinh la thuat lam cho minh luon luon manh khoe, de ma khong co co hoi thiet tha nghi 

den than the cua minh. 

Nguoi xua co noi:" Mot than the khong dau, mot tinh than khong loan, do la chin hanh phuc 

cua con nguoi. Co duoc mot than the khong dau, thi tinh than moi khong loan; nhung thuong 

khi, nho co mot tinh than khong loan, moi co duoc mot than the khong dau. do la hai dieu 

khong the roi nhau: anh huong cua vat chat doi voi tinh than va anh huong cua tinh tha doi 

vdi vat chat. Nhung ban ve phan cao nhat cua phep duong sinh thi nguoi Dong phuong coi 

trong phan anh huong cua tinh than hon. 



"Diem dam hu vo, 
Chan khi tung chi, 
Tinh than noi thu, 
Benh an tung lai." 
(Hoang- De Noi- Kinh) 
(Chuxmg Dao- Sinh) 

Thuong- Co Thien- chan luan 

*** 

O thien Duong- sinh- Chu, Trang tu noi:" Ngo sinh da huu nhai, nhi tri da vo nhai. Di huu 
nhai tuy vo nhai, dai di!" (Sinh luc cua ta thi co han, ma noi lo nghi uu lu thi vo han, la nguy 
vay!) . Vi vay ma phep duong sinh chiem dia vi kha quan trong trong hoc thuyet Trang tu va 
ve sau phai Dao gia lai khai thac no lap ra thanh mot hoc phai dac biet la phai" truong sinh 

cuu thi". 

*** 

Nhung, moi ban khoan lo so nhat lam cho con nguoi thuong- sinh (8) va da bien con nguoi 
thanh con vat dau kho nhat doi la long ham song so chet (tham sinh uy tu) . 
Ta hay nhin ky chung quanh, xem su banh truong manh me cua ton giao thi du ro van de sinh 
tu la quan trong den buc nao! Nguoi hoan toan tu do la nguoi thoat khoi cai tarn trang" tham 
sinh uy tu", nguoi biet nhin thay sinh tu la Mot. Su ban khoan lo so su song chet se giam 
duoc hoac diit di neu ta hieu ro duoc cai ly cua song chet. do la cai phep" lay Ly ma hoa 

Tinh" cua Trang tu. 

*** 

Thien Duong- sinh- chu noi:" Lao Dam chet. Tan That den dieu, khoc ba tieng, roi di ra. de tu 

hoi:" Ong khong phai la ban cua phu tu hay sao? 

Phai. 

Vay thi, dieu nhu the la phai hay sao? 

Phai. Trudc kia ta xem Lao Dam la ban ta. Nay xem lai do, thi khong phai nua. Luc ta vao 

dieu, thay co gia khoc do nhu cha khoc con; tre khoc do nhu con khoc me. do la tron thien 

tanh, gia them tinh va quen cho minh to lanh cua tao hoa. Co nhon goi do la hinh- kho cua su 

tron thien tanh. Phu tu vui ma den, la thoi; vui ma di, la thuan. An thoi xu thuan thi buon vui 

lam sao vao dang coi long. Co nhon goi do la" huyen giai". 

Trong Troi Dat, chi co mot cai" Song", cai" Song" khong sinh khong tu. Song Chet chi la cai 

hinh thuc cua mot cuoc bien hoa cua co Dai Hoa cua Troi Dat. Cai" Song" ay chinh la cai ma 

Lao tu goi"tu nhi bat vong gia tho" (chet ma khong mat) . 

Hinh thuc nay ma co mat di, thi cai" Song" ay lai di ve mot cho khac. Ciing nhu trong mot 

than cay, la nay rung, thi cai song trong la cay" tro ve" trong than cay ma sanh ra la khac, 

cung hoa trai khac. . .cai ma ta goi la song chet day, chi la mot su " thanh, huy" cua mot trang 

thai trong van hoa cua Troi Dat Van vat ma thoi. Trang tu da vi su song chet nhu mot bo cui" 

cot lai" va " ma ra". Sinh la Huyen, tu la Giai. Huyen la cot lai, Giai la thao ra. 

Song chet chang qua la" mot di mot lai" noi tiep nhau, con cai Song, tiic la Chan- the cua ta, 

thi luon luon nhu the mai, khong thay doi. 

Cai Song cua Chan the, doi vdi hinh the cua ta, vi nhu" lua" ma doi voi" cui": tu hinh the nay 

truyen qua hinh the kia nhu" lua" truyen tu bo cui nay sang bo cui kia:" khong khac nao hoa 

cii truyen mai ma khong tat, cai song truyen mai ma khong bao gio tuyet". 

Chet, la tu mot canh nay, doi qua mot canh khac. . . Tu canh nay doi qua canh khac ma lo so, 

thi la mot viec lo so hao nhu canh nang Le Co. . ." Nang Le Co, con mot vi quan tran thu 

phong cuong xii Ngai, ga ve cho Vua nude Tan. Luc xuat gia, roi luy dam bau. Khi tdi hoang 

cung, cung Vua dong sang, nem mui so- hoan, roi nang lai hoi han giot le ngay xua" (Te- Vat- 

Luan) . 

Chet ma lo so thi co khac nao ta so trudc cai canh ma minh chua biet. biet dau rang, sau nay 



ta lai giong nhu nang Le Ca, sau khi den hoang cung bay gio lai hoi nan giot le ngay xua ma 
khong chiu tro ve que cu. Neu ta cho hinh thiic hien co day la dang vui, thi sau khi chet, cho 
ta dang hinh thiic moi khac, sao lai biet la khong co cho dang vui nhu bay gio? nghi lai luc ma 
ta chua la nguoi nhu ngay nay, co le luc lia canh do de sang qua canh day, biet dau ta cung 
da" roi luy dam bau", quyen luyen dung dang, va cho su thay doi hoan canh la mot tai hoa. Va 
hien nay, nghi lai cai" giot le ngay truoc" ta cung se lay lam hoi han." Trong muon van hinh 
thiic ciia van vat, hinh thiic ciia nguoi la mot. Gap duoc hinh thiic ay, chua dii rieng vui voi 
no, boi trong vo cue, cho" gap moi" ciia van vat thi vo cung. . . Mot cho" gap moi" nhu day 
ma con biet vui, ha chi co mot cho nay ma thoi sao?" Loi chii day ciia Quach Tuong that ro 
rang het siic. 

Hinh thiic con nguoi la mot trong muon van hinh thiic ciia van vat. Nhu vay, gap hinh thiic 
nao cung dang vui mung ca, ha chi co hinh thiic con nguoi dang vui mung ma thoi sao? " Gia 
nhu canh tay trai ta bien thanh con ga thi ta nhan do ma gay canh. Gia nhu canh tay mat ta 
hoa lam hon dan thi ta nhan do ma kiem chim quay. Gia nhu hoa cai xuong cung ciia ta lam 
banh xe, hoa than hon ta lam con ngua thi ta nhan do ma cuoi, ha con doi xe ngua nao nua? 
Va" dac" la thoi," that" la thuan. An thoi xii thuan thi buon vui lam sao vao dang coi long!" 
Vi vay, bac chan- nhan xua" khong ham song, khong ghet chet, ra khong vui, vao khong so, 
than nhien ma den, than nhien ma di. (Dai- Tong- Su) . 

"Xua, Trang Chau chiem bao, thay minh la buom, vui phan lam buom: tu nhien thich chi 
khong con biet Chau. Chot tinh giac, thay minh la Chau. Khong biet Chau luc chiem bao la 
buom, hay buom hie chiem bao la Chau? Chau cung buom at co phan dinh" (Te- Vat- Luan) . 
Ban ve van de sinh tii ma lai dung den Thuc va Mong nhu chuyen Trang Chau mong ho- diep 
ma noi, thi tham tram sau sac khong biet chung nao! That la van chuong huyen- tuong la 

thuong. 

*** 

Theo Trang tii, muon tran tinh long cam xiic ciia con nguoi truoc van de sinh tii, cung nhu doi 
voi tat ca moi xiic cam khac de lam cho ta thuong sinh, thi phai dung den phep" lay Ly ma 
hoa Tinh". Nguoi tri thiic, biet ro duoc chan tuong ciia Vu Tru, biet duoc cho phat sinh ciia su 
vat la viec tat nhien. . . thi khi gap viec se khong dong cam ma giu duoc ve than nhien tram 
tinh ben ngoai cung nhu ben trong. Khong dong cam, la khong bi troi buoc, nghia la duoc tu 
do va hanh phiic vay. Ti nhu gio thoi ngoi bay, rot nham mot diia tre hoac mot ke Ion. Diia tre 
nong gian, nguyen nia va quy toi cho mieng ngoi vo tinh; con ke Ion, trai lai, biet la khong loi 
noi dau ca, cho nen khong dong cam, khong buc tiic va nho do ma cho dau cung bot dau. La 
vi, tri thiic ciia nguoi Ion biet ro cai ly do ciia mieng ngoi rot, nen" lay Ly ma hoa Tinh"," 
buon vui vi do ma khong vao dang coi long!" 

Tro len la ban den hanh phiic tuong doi. 

*** 

Con muon ban den hanh- phiic tuyet doi, thi phai ban den Tu- Do tuyet doi. 

Muon di den hanh phiic tuyet doi, tiic la Tu Do tuyet doi, thi can phai dung den mot thii tri 

thiic sieu dang de ma dat den cho Huyen- dong cung van vat. 

Thien Tieu- Dieu- Du, sau khi ban ve hanh phiic tieu dieu ciia chim Bang, cung nhu ciia chim 

cuu, co noi den Liet- tii coi gio ma di. . ." Liet- tii coi gio ma di, di mot each em ai nhe nhang, 

di tron muoi lam horn moi ve. Do song trong cho chi phiic va nguoi nhu ong de thuong thay 

co. Tuy khoi phai di, nhung con phai cho. . ." Cho cai gi? Gio. 

Nhu vay, thi cai hanh phuc ciia Liet- tii cung chua duoc goi la tuyet doi, la vi con phai tuy 

mot dieu kien khac o ngoai. 

Chi co nhung ai" thuan theo cai chanh ciia Troi Dat, nuong theo cai bien ciia luc- khi ma rong 

choi trong coi vo cung; thi do dau con phai doi cai gi nua. Cho nen noi rang: bac chi nhan 

khong thay co minh, bac than nhan khong nho den cong trang ciia minh, bac thanh nhan 

khong nghi den ten tuoi ciia minh." (Tieu- Dieu- Du) 



Trang tii, tren day, ta hang nguoi hoan toan giai thoat, tiic la nguoi da dat den hanh phiic tuyet 
doi, bac chi nhan da huyen- dong cung tao vat, nen khong con thay minh nua. Ho la nguoi da 
vuot len tren nhung cap mau thuan ma the nhan thuong nhan thay: phai quay, vinh nhuc, 
truoc sau, cao thatii, Ion nho, sanh tii. . . Ho la nguoi da giai quyet duoc sir mau thuan to tat 
nhat noi ho: tinh va ly, tarn va tri, noi va ngoai, nhi nga. Khong con thay co" nhi", tiic la 
khong con thay co" nga", ho la nguoi da dat den trang thai" vo- nga". " V6 nga", nen cung" 
vo- cong" va " vo danh". 

Da la" vo- ky", " vo cong"," vo danh" nen ho da la Mot vdi Dao." Dao thi khong lam ma 
khong co gi la khong lam". Va nhan do ma hanh dong ciia ho khong con goi la hanh dong ciia 
tu tarn tu due nua, ma la hanh dong cua Dao, cua Chan- the, cua Vo- Nga. Hanh dong ay la 

hanh dong" Vo- vi" cua Dao noi ta vay. 

*** 

De di den su Huyen- Dong, bac Chan- nhan phai" biet quen thi phi" (tri vong thi phi) . 
Theo nghia thong thuong cua the nhan thi" biet" la " biet" bang su phan biet. Phai diit bo loi 
nhan thiic ay de di den mot thii nhan thiic sieu- dang khac ma cac nha Dao- hoc goi la" tri bat 
tri, thuong" (9) . 

Phung huu Lan goi do la" kinh nghiem thuan tuy" tiic la kinh nghiem cua Vo Tri Thiic, va 
cung la cho ma nha Phat goi la Hien- luong, Thien- dinh, Thien- toa, va ve sau phai Than- 
tien ciia Dao- giao goi la Tinh- toa. Thuan tuy kinh nghiem, la su thuc nghiem Dao o ban 
than, trong do khong con can den suy luan, doi dai. . . ma nhan thiic true tiep Thuc tai khong 
chii khach, khong noi ngoai vi nhung cap doi dai ay da dong nhat, va da bien mat trong tarn 

minh roi. 

*** 

Thien Dai- Tong- Su co doan van nay: 

" Nhan Hoi noi: Hoi duoc them! 

Trong- Ni hoi: La nghia gi? 

Nhan Hoi noi: Toi quen Nhan Nghia. 

Trong Ni noi: Duoc, nhung ma chua tron. 

Mot horn khac, lai ra mat va noi: 

Hoi duoc them. 

La nghia gi the? 

Hoi quan Le Nhac. 

Duoc, nhung chua tron. 

Mot horn khac nua, lai ra mat ma rang: 

Hoi duoc them. 

La nghia gi? 

Hoi" ngoi ma quen" roi. 

Trong Ni ngac nhien hoi: 

Ngoi ma quen, la the lam sao? 

Nhan Hoi noi: Giai the, bo thong minh, lia hinh, bo tri, dong vdi Dao Ion. do goi la" ngoi ma 

quen" (toa vong) . 

Trong Ni noi:" Dong, thi khong con tham muon nua; hoa, thi khong thuong nua. Qua Hoi la 

nguoi hien. Khuu nay nguyen theo sau do." 

*** 

Chuong dau thien Te- Vat- Luan cung co noi: 

" Quach Tii- Ky ngoi dua ghe, ngiia mat ha hoi, bo pho nhu nguoi mat ban. 

Nhan- Thanh Tii- Du diing hau truoc mat, thay vay, hoi:" Sao ma hinh hai co the khien duoc 

nhu cay kho, con long thi co the khien duoc nhu tro lanh. Nay nguoi ngoi tren ghe co phai la 

nguoi ngoi tren ghe truoc day nua khong? 

Tii- Ky noi:" Yen, cau hoi ciia nguoi dau phai la khong diing! Ta nay da mat ban nga roi, 



nguoi co biet khong?..." 

Day cung la phep" toa vong" de ma thuc hien sir huyen dong vdi ban the cua Dao va do cung 

la ciiu canh cua Trang hoc: he" dong" vdi cai Song chung cua Vu Tru van vat thi se khong 

con thuong ghet rieng tu, se khong con tham muon deo bong nhung Tanh Phan ngoai minh 

nua. Cho nen mdi ndi rang" dong tac vo hieu da" (10) 

Dao hoc, theo Trang tu, khong phai chi la mot loi triet ly sudng cua ly tri, ma la mot cuoc thuc 

hien hay thuc nghiem ban than ve Chan- Ly. Loi noi cua Nhan- Hoi trong cau chuyen" toa 

vong" tren day co nghia la Hoi da duoc cai Dao ben trong bang phep" truat- phe thong minh" 

va" bo ly tri". Nen de y phan biet dieu nay: bo su hieu biet khong phai la khuyen ta dung hieu 

biet. Co hai trinh do hieu biet: biet cai biet thong thuong, cai biet cua gidi nhi nguyen, cai biet 

trong vong tuong doi cua thi phi, thien ac va biet ve cai le" bat kha tri", biet ve ban the, tiic la 

cai biet ve Tuyet doi. Cai biet thong thuong cua ly tri, cua gidi nhi nguyen ve thi phi, thien ac 

dau phai la khong can, trong khi ta van con hoat dong trong vong" sac tuong", nhung, khi 

muon nam duoc Dao, ta can phai vuot len khoi no. Trang tu goi cai phep" vuot len" ay bang 

mot chu" Vong", nghia la " Quen". ong noi:" Tri vong thi phi, tarn chi thich da". Ngudi duoc 

Dao, khong phai la ngudi khong biet thi phi, ma la ngudi da vuot len tren ca thi phi. Khong 

biet thi phi, voi vuot len thi phi la hai dieu khac nhau xa. Cai" khong biet" (bat tri) cua diia 

hai nhi, voi cai" khong biet" cua bac dat Dao cung khac nhau rat xa vay. Cai" khong biet" ay, 

ma Lao tu goi la" Xich tu chi tarn" dung cd hieu lam do la tarn trang hon don cua diia tre so 

sinh. Cho nen khong nen hieu cho do la cai hoc" ngu dan". 

Bdi khong nhan thay rd rang su phan biet do ma phan dong hoc gia chuyen ve Trang hoc mdi 

de xudng thuyet" phuc co" nhu d Thien Dao Chich trong sach Trang tu (Xem Trang tu tinh- 

hoa) . 

Cai tri thuc thong thuong ve sac gidi khong lam sao hieu duoc chan ly tuyet doi, vi vay Trang 

tu de xudng su" khu- tri" va" phe bo thong minh". 

O thien Thien Dia co doan:" Hoang de di choi den phia Bac Xich Thuy, len go Con- ldn, 

trong ve hudng Nam tim dudng trd ve, thi bo roi ngoc Huyen- chau. Sai Tri di tim, nhung 

khong tim ra. Sai Ly- Chau (rat tinh con mat) di tim, nhung cung khong tim ra. Sai Khiet- 

Cdu (ngudi cd tai hung bien) di tim, nhung cung tim khong ra. Ben sai Tuong- Vong. Tuong- 

Vong tim ra. Hoang de noi: La thay, chi co Tuong Vong mdi tim ra duoc ngoc Huyen- chau 

sao!" 

Tuong- Vong la cai "cd hinh ma thuc ra khong cd hinh" tiic la am chi cai" Tarn hu khong" 

truu tuong sieu hinh. 

Cung khong the dung den sach vo kinh dien ma tim duoc Dao, vi theo Trang tu, do cung chi 

la nhiing" can ba cua ca nhan" (11) ma thdi. 

Ly luan, bien thuyet deu vd ich ca, no chi lam cho long ta them tarn toi, cho than minh ma 

am. 

" Nhiem Cau hoi Trong Ni: 

Cd the nao biet duoc cai co trudc Trdi Dat khong? 

Trong Ni noi: Duoc! Xua cung nhu bay gid (12) 

Nhiem Cau rut lui, khong hoi nua. 

Qua ngay hdm sau, lai ra mat ma rang: 

Horn trudc tdi hoi: cd the nao biet duoc cai co trudc Trdi Dat chang? Thi thay day rang: 

Duoc. Xua cung nhu nay. Trudc kia, toi tuong la toi da hieu, nhung horn nay thi lai cam thay 

mu mit. Dam xin hoi y Thay noi nhu the nao? 

Trong Ni noi: Horn trudc nguoi hieu r5 la vi da dung den cai than minh ma nghe. Nay lai cam 

thay mit mu la vi da dung den cai khong phai than minh ma cau hieu. (Tri Bac Du) 

Cai ma Trang tu goi" Than" la am chi cai khieu biet tu nhien (mot thii true giac phat tu cai 

tarn" hu") , cho nen mdi hieu rd lien. Ve sau, vi dung cai ly luan gia tao chap noi cua ly tri, 

nen long thong cam tu nhien cua true giac ma di. " Hoc gia, hoc ky so bat nang hoc (...); 



bien gia, bien ky so bat nang bien" (13) . Cai hoc ma Trang tii khuyen ta la" cai hoc ma khong 

sao hoc duoc"; con co bien luan thi" hay bien luan cai khong sao bien luan duoc". Do la cai 

hoc ve thuan tuy sieu hinh, mot thii Tarn- hoc hoan toan. 

Cho nen chi co thuc hien duoc cai doi song tarn linh ciia ta, la muc dich toi cao ciia doi song 

con nguoi. Trong sach Trang tii day day nhung cau chuyen" than- hoa" ay. 

" Nhan Thanh Tu - - Du noi vdi Nam- Quach Tii- Ky: 

Tu ngay toi nghe loi day cua Thay duoc mot nam, thi toi thay long toi tro ve moc mac don 

thuan; duoc hai nam, thi chay theo Dao; duoc ba nam, thi thong le Dao; duoc bon nam, thi 

thay toi nhu mot vat ngoai; duoc nam nam, thi tien den muc; duoc sau nam, thi thay duong 

nhu co than minh nhap the; duoc bay nam, thi duoc than hoa (thien thanh) ; duoc tarn nam, 

thi khong biet minh con song hay chet; duoc chin nam, thi da den cho Dai Huyen- dieu" (Ngu 

Ngon) . 

Do la nhung giai doan phai trai qua de di den mot cuoc "than hoa" hoan toan. 

Mot doan khac o thien Dai- Tong- Su lai noi ro rang hon: 

" Ba ngay, thi bo duoc viec thien ha ra ngoai; (...) bay ngay, thi bo duoc su thay co ngoai vat 

ben ngoai; (. . .) chin ngay, thi bo duoc cai song cua minh ra ngoai (14) . Bo duoc cai song cua 

minh ra ngoai thi moi duoc" trieu triet" (15) . " Trieu triet" roi, moi nhan thay duoc cai Mot. 

Thay duoc cai Mot roi, moi khong con thay co Xua co Nay. Khong con thay co Xua co Nay 

roi, moi vao duoc coi khong chet khong song." 

Cai trang thai" hot nhien, dac ngo" ay, co khi chi nho mot loi noi ma duoc:" nhut ngoi nhi 

nang ngo" (16) . Cong phu du bi thi lau dai trong V6 thiic, nhung luc" dac ngo" thi that la 

mau le nhu chop nhang va lam bien doi nan tarn than tri nao con nguoi. 

" Nhan Hoi noi: Khi chua than hoa, thi ro la co Hoi that. Nhung khi da duoc than hoa roi, thi 

thay chua he co Hoi. Co the goi do la" hu" chua? (Nhon- Gian- The) . 

Cai thoi ky" dac ngo" thi mau le nhu the, nhung can phai co mot thoi ky chuan bi, tiic la tu 

luyen. Thoi ky ay, Trang tu goi la" tarn trai", tiic la su chay tinh cua long. 

o thien Nhon- Gian- The, Trang tu mieu ta rat ro le ay: 

Hoi noi: Dam xin hoi the nao la" chay tinh cua long?" 

Trong Ni dap: Hay chuyen tarn nhat chi. dung nghe bang tai, ma nghe bang long. Dung nghe 

bang long, ma nghe bang khi. Dieu gi minh nghe, thi hay de no o ngoai tai, con long thi hop 

nhat no lai. Than khi phai hu, hu moi nhan duoc Dao; hu tiic la" chay long" day!" 

Do la ca mot chuong trinh" chay tinh": tu bo tat ca ngoai vat, song gian di, lam cho tarn tri 

dong nhat voi moi su moi vat, " chuyen tarn bao nhat" cho long duoc trong khong hu tinh, 

khong con bi anh huong gi ciia vat ngoai nua ca. Nhu vay moi mong dat den trang thai huyen- 

dong voi chan the tuyet doi ciia minh. Cot yeu la de cho long dat den" chan khong" moi mong 

than hoa duoc (17) . 

Va, nhan the ma phan dong nhung ke theo ve voi Dao- hoc, bao gio cung khoi dau bang each 

lanh xa cuoc song phon hoa xa hoi, thich o nhiing noi tich- mich thien nhien: 

" Khong- tii ben tu biet be ban, tu bo hoc tro, tron vao cham Ion, mac ao cuu, ao vai, an hat 

gam, hat de. Chen vao dam muong ma khong lam loan dan, chen vao dam chim ma khong 

lam loan hang (tiic la hoa dong voi van vat) . Chim muong con khong ghet bo, huong chi la 

con nguoi (Son- Moc) . 

Tuy nhien, lanh doi co khi cung chua du de goi la thoat duoc khoi anh huong ciia doi. o trong 

doi ma khong de cho than tarn luy vi doi, moi that la nguoi lam chii duoc hoan canh, moi that 

la nguoi tu do. Su than nhien diit bo doi voi the su khoi noi long giac ngo ciia minh trudc 

nhat: dau can phai xa lanh cuoc doi moi diit duoc long no le quyen luyen. 

o thien ling- De- Vuong, Trang hi co noi:" (...) Liet- tii ba nam khong ra ngoai. o nha nau 

com cho vo, nuoi heo cung kinh nhu nuoi nguoi, va khong thiet den viec gi nua ca (de ma 

tieu diet cai long tu kieu tu ai ciia minh di) . Pha bo tat ca moi trang siic gia tao de cho tarn 

long tro ve coi thuan phac tu nhien. Thanh nhu cue dat, giiia canh nao nhiet ma long van 



khong nao dong. Nhu the den tron doi minh. . ." 

Trong con duong" huyen hoc", giai doan" tarn trai" nay la kho khan gay go nhat vi minh phai 
chiu dung mot cuoc tranh chap khong 16 o noi tarn giua cai" ta xa hoi" va cai" Chan the" cua 
ta, nghia la giua cai ma Trang tii goi la Thien va Nhon (Troi va nguoi) . 
Cat nghia chu Thien va Nhon, Trang tii co noi:" Bo ngua bon chin, do la Troi (Thien) (18) . 
Khop dau ngua, xo miii trau, do la nguoi (Nhon) (19) (. . .) dung lay nguoi ma giet troi (...) 
Giu can than, dung de mat thien chan, the goi la tro ve cai Chan cua minh." (Thu- Thuy) 
Nhon, hie la nhon- tao, la am chi nhung uoc le gia tao cua xa hoi de rang buoc con nguoi vao 
mot khuon kho, tiic la nhung cai ma Khong- hoc goi la Nhan, Nghia, Le, Tri, Tin. . . luan- ly, 
Dao due, phap do, du ra co loi cho con nguoi trong giai doan" tri thi phi, tri thien ac", no tro 
lai thanh mot chuong ngai vat cho giai doan giai thoat", tuc la giai doan" vong thi phi, vong 
thien ac", giai doan ma " Chan the" da den luc truong thanh, du sue" tu sinh, tu hoa.' Vi the 
Trang tu moi co noi:" Tri vong thi phi, tarn chi thich da", biet quen su phai quay, do la cai tarn 
cua minh thong suot roi vay. Bao rang: biet quen, tuc la phai co biet, roi sau moi vuot len su 
hieu biet ma quen di. Muon giai thoat, con nguoi trudc het phai trai qua giai doan nhan thuc 
ro rang cai Ban nga cua minh: khong bao gio di den giai thoat ma chua rung nhan thuc va 
song trong Ban Nga mot each sau xa. Ban nga la nguon goc cua dau kho, vi no co gang song 
rieng ngoai cai Song- mot cua tarn hon. Nhung ban tanh cua no la "hiiu- thuc", vi co " hiiu 
thuc" moi co the chia phan. Huu thuc phai den trinh do cung cue cua no, moi co the di vao cai 
Song cua V6 thuc. Ban nga la Am, he Am cue moi Duong sinh. Duong la am chi cai Chan 
the cua minh. Nhu tren da noi: Ban nga la nguon goc cua dau kho. Muon di den trang thai V6- 
thiic, phai lam cho tan vo cai vo bao ngoai, la Ban nga. Lam tan vo no, se phai dau kho de ma 
thoat xac, " phai chet, roi moi duoc Phuc sinh:, do la y nghia cua cau chuyen Dang Ciiu- The 
(Jesus) phai chiu chet dong dinh tren cay Thap- gia, de roi duoc phuc sinh va len troi. Vi vay 
moi co cau khau hieu nay cua cac nha huyen hoc Thien chua giao:" chet tren cay thap gia cua 
minh". Triet hoc Dong phuong bao" vat cung tac bien, vat cue tac phan", " chet de ma song 
lai", do la dieu am chi den viec lam cho" chet" ban nga di, de phuc hoi chan tinh. 
Nha Dao hoc an do hien dai la J. Krisnamutri cung co noi ro rang hien trang ay:" Tieng noi 
cua toi la tieng noi cua su Hieu biet tham sau, do mot su dau kho tuyet vong ma co" 
Ban nga chua chin mui, chua co the rung, dau kho chua den cho tuyet voi, kho ma giac ngo 
(20). 

Ban- nga (ca cai ban nga xa hoi un due no) co the vi nhu cai vo tning ga, doi voi con ga con 
dang thoi ky chua no. Cai vo bao ngoai la can thiet cho cai song cua con ga trong khi no chua 
thanh hinh day du, nhung khi con ga con da den do truong thanh, co the song tiep xuc ngay 
voi anh sang va khong khi ben ngoai, thi cai vo bao ngoai kia lai tro thanh mot chuong ngai 
vat ma no phai pha vo ra, vi do la tat ca van de sanh tu cua no luc bay gio. 
Hot lua chi lam xong sii mang cua no khi nao no tro thanh cay lua, nghia la de co the tro 
thanh cay lua, no phai" chet" cai doi song hot giong cua no di, thi no moi hoan thanh duoc su 
mang cua no. 

Boi vay, truoc day Trang tu moi co bao:" Pha bo tat ca moi trang sue gia tao ben ngoai de cho 
tarn long tro ve coi thuan phac tu nhien" (ling- De- Vuong) . Va" dung lay nguoi ma giet 
Troi" (Thu- Thuy) . Nguoi day la cai" ta xa hoi" tao thanh, con Troi tuc la chan the. 
Nhan ro duoc nhu the, ta se khong lay gi lam la ma thay rang suot bo Nam- Hoa- Kinh, Trang 
tu bao gio cung cue luc phan doi cai hoc cua Khong, Mac, va de cao thien nhien ma da kich" 
nhan vi hay nhan tao". Cai hoc cua Trang tu, cung nhu cua Lao tu, la cai hoc giai thoat, tieu 
diet Ban nga de thuc hien con nguoi " vo ky, vo cung, va vo danh", tiic la cai hoc thuyet ve 
giai doan thu hai trong cuoc thien dien cua doi nguoi de hoan thanh su mang con nguoi cua 
minh trong Troi Dat:" Ta nay da mat Ban nga roi, nguoi co biet chang?" (Te- Vat- Luan) . 
Tom lai, su chong doi, da kich cua Trang tu chang qua la viec lam cua" con ga con" da den 
thoi ky no: pha vo cai vo boc ngoai cua qua tning de giai thoat. chi co the thoi. 



Di ra, roi trd lai, do la con duong cua Dao ma Lao tu da noi:" Phan gia, Dao chi dong". Di ra, 
la con duong trong giai doan dau de di den su tao thanh mot Ban- nga day du; di ve, la con 
duong" phuc ky ban", " phan ky chan", tieu diet ban nga. 

Con duong trudc la con duong song chia phan cua noi tarn: Tarn Tri, Nhi Nga, Thi Phi, Thien 
ac... 

Con duong thu hai, la con duong" trd ve" nguon Song Mot, con duong hop nhat lai nhung gi 
da bi chia che. . .Do la con duong giai thoat. Hai con duong tren day trong doi song cua con 
nguoi la cat hai the gidi rieng biet va nghich han nhau. Con duong trudc nguoi ta goi la con 
duong" tien" thi con duong sau phai goi la con duong" thoi". Lao tu co noi:" Vi hoc nhat ich, 
vi Dao nhat ton. . ." Tu ben the gidi nay sang qua the gidi ben kia, nha Phat goi la" dao bi 
ngan" (den bo ben kia) . 

Hai the gidi da khac nhau, thi su hoat dong tri thuc tren nhung vung tinh than ay cung phai 
khac nhau: d gidi nhi nguyen thi phai dung ly tri, nhung khi budc chan vao ngudng cua cua 
gidi nhat nguyen thi khong con dung den dung cu tri thuc kia, la ly tri duoc nua, ma phai 
dung den mot nang khieu dac biet khac la true giac (21) . Trang tu goi la" dai tri" va nha Phat 
goi la Tri" Bat nha", hay la Tri- hue bat nha. 

Nhu vay, nhan quang cua nguoi budc qua giai doan giai thoat la nhan quang nghich han vdi 
nhan quang cua nguoi con song trong giai doan chap cd mot cai ta rieng biet (nhi nguyen) . 
Giai doan nay (giai doan nhi nguyen) cd hai thoi ky: thoi ky phoi thai cua ban nga va thoi ky 
trudng thanh cua ban nga. 

Trong thoi ky thu nhat, con nguoi con song theo quan doan, song theo tap quan, theo anh 
hudng cua nguoi chung quanh, chua co ca tanh dac biet. Ho chi biet bat chudc va khong dam 
suy nghi khac hon nhiing giao ly, ton giao hay che do giao due duong thoi: ho hoan toan la 
san pham cua xa hoi chung quanh. 

Thoi ky thu hai la thoi ky trudng thanh cua ban nga. Bat dau ca nhan cd nhung tu each chong 
doi xa hoi, khong chiu mu quang thuan theo mot each no le bat cii mot mang- lenh nao, mot le 
loi cuu udc nao cua che do luan- ly, ton giao, xa hoi da qua hoac duong thoi chi phoi. Ho cd 
nhiing tu tudng each mang va doc doan. Vach thanh cua truyen thong, cua tap tuc bat dau ran 
nut. Ho dam suy nghi theo minh, bat dau hoai nghi, va can dam dem tat ca moi van de ma dat 
lai. Ho khong thu dong nua, trai lai de cao den tot do chu nghia ca nhan du moi phuong dien. 
Ho tim du moi each de de cao doi song doc lap tinh than, khong chiu ton thd mot quyen the 
vat chat tinh than nao ca ngoai minh. Doc lap, tan- ky, sang tao, tu do, do la bon dac diem cua 
con nguoi tinh than cua ho. 

Nhung, mot ngay kia, ban nga cua ho phat trien den miic cung tot, ho lai cam thay ho bo rang 
buoc trong nhung cdng trinh sang tao cua ho, nghia la ho cam thay ho bi no le lay nhung gia 
tri gia tao ma chinh ho da bay ra. Tat ca nhiing gia tri cua xa hoi van minh ngay nay, nhu 
nhung gia tri ve luan- ly, dao due, van hoa, xa hoi ma ho da bay ra, phai chang deu cd cong 
dung la trdi buoc ho vao nhiing khudn kho qua chat hep cua mot ao vong dau tien vo cung 
quan trong: Ban nga. Bay gid, ho bat dau di qua giai doan thu ba, la vuot len tren cai Ban nga 
ao tudng ay, tiic la ho budc qua con duong Giai thoat. 

Giai doan nay khong phai la giai doan di den su thuc hien sieu nhan, ma de thuc hien trang 
thai tu nhien cua mot con nguoi " vien man", mot con nguoi " vo nga", hay noi theo Trang tu, 
con nguoi" chan- nhan". Giai doan nay " phan" lai giai doan tren: Cach nhan thuc, suy luan 
deu nghich han vdi nhung each nhan thuc, suy luan nhi nguyen nhu trong giai doan trudc. 
Cach lap ngdn vi the cung khac han. Cung nhu ben Thien- tdng Phat giao, nguoi ta dung den 
phep lap ngon vo cung dac biet nay la hay noi nguoc lai tat ca nhung loi suy nghi thong 
thudng de ma pha tan cai" tap niem nhi nguyen". Phai cd trai qua mot cuoc dai each mang tu 
tudng, xao tron va lat nguoc tat ca moi van de thudng thuc trong doi, moi mong" pha tan" 
duoc cai ac- tap suy nghi theo nhi nguyen, moi nhan ro duoc cai Chan- tudng cua su vat. 



Nhu vay, phan dong nguoi ta, neu so di con trach cai giong van" khinh the ngao vat" ciia 
nhom Trang hoc, cho rang loi van nhieu khi trich thuong va qua bao, khong co ve diu dang 
hoa nha va khiem ton doi voi tu tuong cua Nho Mac, dai dien tu tuong nhi nguyen, la vi 
nguoi ta chua y thiic duoc phep lap ngon cua cac nha Bao hoc Dong phuong, cua Lao Trang 
va nhat la cua Thien- tong, thuong vu lay cho lam cho thuc tinh, chii khong con phai vu lay su 
ru- ngii cai ban nga cua con nguoi nua. Su va cham nang ne doi voi thanh kien la mot trong 

nhung phuong phap de giiip cho nguoi de tinh ngo. 

*** 

Tom lai, ba muoi ba thien cua sach Trang tii, tuy nghia ly sau rong, nhung chi co sau thien 
dau, la Tieu- Dieu- Du, Te- Vat- Luan, Duong- Sinh- Chu, Due- Sung- Phu, Dai- Tong- Su va 
ling- De- Vuong cua Noi thien la bao quat duoc tat ca yeu chi cua toan the bo sach. Cac thien 
chuong trong Ngoai va Tap- thien rat co the co mot so it do tay Trang tu viet ra, ky du deu do 
cac bac hau hoc cua phai Lao Trang thuat lai de dien dat them cai dai nghia cua sau thien dau. 
Tieu- Dieu- Du thi ban ve tu do tuyet doi; con Te- Vat- Luan thi noi ve binh dang tuyet doi. 
That ra thi chi co hai thien nay la nen tang ciia ca hoc thuyet Trang tu ma thoi. Cac thien khac 
trong Noi thien cung deu la nhiing y tuong phu thuoc dung de dien dat cai dai y cua hai thien 
nay ma thoi. 
Chu thich: 

(1) Tu la Tii- Huyen (mat vao khoang 312 TL Ky- nguyen) . 

(2) die Nhat 

(3) Chii khong phai ciia minh thu lanh noi xa hoi, luan ly, che do, noi van minh gia tao cua 
con nguoi bay ra. 

(4) Thien- trach la chon loc thien nhien, thuyet ciia Darwin trong bo" Vat chiing Nguyen 
thiiy" 

(5) Tien- Hoa la mot su Bien, mot su Dong- va them vao mot thuc trang ay la mot y kien chii 
quan la di theo mot khuynh huong nao. 

(6) Diic Sung Phu co cau:" Sanh tii, ton vong, cung dat, ban phu, hien du bat tieu, hiiy du co 
khat, han thii: thi su vi bien, mang chi hinh da. Nhat da tuong dai ho tien, nhi tri bat nang giai 
ho ky thiiy gia da ". (Chet song, con het, cung dat, ngheo giau, hien va bat tieu, che khen, doi 
khat, nong lanh: do la cai bien ciia vat, cai chuyen ciia Mang. Ngay dem thay phien tiep noi 
trudc mat ta ma tri thong minh ciia ta khong sao nhan thay duoc dau la cho khoi dau. " 

(7) thich nhon chi thich, nhi bat tu thich ky thich da: chay theo cao thich ciia nguoi ma khong 
tu minh chay theo cai thich ciia minh. 

(8) Thuong sinh: lam ton hai den sinh mang. 

(9) Tri bat tri, thuong: biet cai khong the biet duoc (" bat kha tri") , tiic la Dao. (Dao- Diic- 
Kinh) . 

(10) Dong voi Dao, nen khong con tham muon nua. 

(11) Trang- tii: Thien Thien Dao (co nhon chi tao phach) 

(12) Co du kim da: cai xua, thi cung nhu cai bay gio (am chi Dao vinh vien, bat bien. . . co tu 
vi thiiy va hien nay cung khong thay doi) , nguoi Phap goi la" Present Eternel Immuable". 

(13) Canh Tang So. 

(14) Nghia la khong con biet co minh nua. 

(15) Trieu- triet: mot su thong hieu thau triet su vat nhu anh sang buoi ban mai, tiic la mot 
thii" true quan kien doc", nhan thay duoc cai Chan The (Song Mot) . 

(16) Liet- tii, thien Luc- Mang. 

(17) Xem cai Dung ciia thanh nhan (cung mot tac gia) phep tinh toa ciia Cuong- Dien (Phu- 
Luc) . 

(18) Thien: thien nhien 

(19) Nhon: nhon tao, la ciia nguoi bay ra. 

(20) Dich- kinh:" vat cung tac bien, vat cue tac phan" va Liet tii o thien Trong Ni cung noi:" 



vat bat cai gia, tac bat phan". Vat ma khong den miic cung ciia no thi khong bien tro lai. Hai 

cau cung dong mot y nghia. Muon" tro ve" (phan) phai de cho ban nga phat trien den cue do 

cua no, thi no mdi" phan bien" ma mat di (am cue Duong sinh d que Phuc) . 

(21) True giac: la dung theo danh tu ngay nay, no khong phai la mot thu giac quan nhu ngudi 

ta thuong goi la " giac quan thu sau", hay thii true giac theo Bergson. Thu true giac theo 

Bergson ciing chi hoat dong trong" dong" sac tudng (ndi theo danh tu nha Phat) chua that la 

cai true giac cua Dai- tri, cua Bat- Nha. 

NAM- HOA- KINH 

nOi- THIEN 

TIEU- DIEU- DU 

NAM HOA KINH - HOC THUYET CUA TRANG TlT 2 : 

A. Bac minh(l) huu ngu, ky danh vi C6n(2). Con chi dai, bat tri ky ky thien ly da. Hda nhi vi 

dieu, ky danh vi Bang(3). Bang chi boi, bat tri ky ky thien ly da. No nhi phi, ky due nhuoc 

thuy thien chi van. Thi dieu da, hai van tac tuong ty u Nam minh. Nam minh gia, thien tri da. 

Te Hai(4) gia, chi quai gia da. Hai chi ngdn viet: Bang chi ty u Nam Minh da, thuy kich tarn 

thien ly, doan phu dieu(5) nhi thuong gia cuu van ly, khii di luc nguyet tiic gia da. 

Da ma(6) da, tran ai da, sinh vat chi di tiic tuong xuy da. Thien chi thuong thuong, ky chinh 

sac da, ky vien nhi vo so chi cue da? Ky thi ha da, diec nhuoc thi tac di hi. 

Tha phit thuy chi tich da bat hau, tac phu dai chau da vo luc. Phuc boi thuy u ao duong chi 

thuong, tac gidi vi chi chau, tri boi yen tac giao, thuy thien nhi chau dai da. Phong chi tich da 

bat hau, tac ky phu dai due da vo luc, co cuu van ly, tac phong tu tai ha hi, nhi hau nai kim 

boi(7) phong, boi phu thanh thien, nhi mac chi yeu ii(8) gia, nhi hau nai kim tuong do Nam. 

Dieu (9) du hoc cuu(10) tieu chi viet: Nga quyet khdi nhi phi thuong du phuong, thoi tac bat 

chi, nhi khong u dia nhi di hi. He di chi cuu van ly nhi nam vi. thich mang thuong(l 1) gia, 

tarn xan nhi phan, phuc du qua nhien. Thich bach ly gia, tiic thung luong. Thich thien ly gia, 

tarn nguyet tu luong. 

Chi nhi trung, huu ha tri? 

Tieu tri bat cap dai tri. 

Tieu nien bat cap dai nien. 

He di tri ky nhien da? 

Trieu khuan(12) bat tri hoi soc(13) hue co(14) bat tri xuan thu. Thu tieu nien da. So chi nam 

hiiu minh linh(15) gia, di ngu bach tue vi xuan, ngu bach tue vi thu. Thuong co huu dai 

xuan(16) gia, di bat thien tue vi xuan, bat thien tue vi thu. (Thu dai nien da). Nhi Banh to(17) 

nai kim di cuu dac van, chung nhon that chi, bat diec bi ho ! 

*** 

Chu thich: 

(1) Bac minh, cung viet la bac hai: bien Bac. 

(2) Con: goc la ten mot thii ca nho, nhung Trang- tu lai dung de chi mot thii ca het siic Ion. 

(3) Bang: goc la ten loai chim phung, Trang- tii lai dung de chi mot thii chim rat Ion. 

(4) Te- Hai: Ten ciia mot quyen sach, chep nhung viec ky quai. 

(5) Da ma: la mot thii hoi dat ngoai dong ruong. Theo Thich Van: mua xuan, hoi nude tren 
mat ao dam. Tren cao nhin xuong, thay nhu bay ngua rung, nen goi la da- ma. Tran ai: Tran, 
la bui dat; Ai, la bui nho. 

(6) Phu dao(dieu): mot thii gid rat manh tu dudi hot len tren khong trung(gid trot). 

(7) Boi: cung doc la bang. Bang, tiic la coi len. Chim Bang d tren ldp gid Ion kia, nen goi la 
coi gid(bang phong). 

(8) Yeu li: yeu la gay; li la dung lai, ngan lai. Yeu li tiic la tro ngai. 

(9) Dieu la con ve(thien) hay la ve nui. 



(10) Hoc cuu: Theo Tu- Ma- Buu la mot thii chim nho, nho hon con chim ciru 

(11) Mang thuong: canh dong ke can. 

(12) Trieu khuan: mot thii nam sdm no chieu tan. 

(13) Hoi soc: soc, la ngay dau thang; hoi, la ngay cuoi thang. o day hoi la buoi toi, soc la buoi 
mai. 

(14) Hue co: la con ve tren niii mua xuan sanh ra, mua ha chet, mua ha sinh ra, mua thu chet. 

(15) Minh linh: ten mot thii cay moc o Giang Nam(Tu- Nguyen). Ban ciia Nhuong Tong lai 
dich la" giong rua Minh- linh" la sai. 

(16) Dai- Xuan: ten mot thii cay moc o Giang- Nam. 

(17) Tuong truyen Banh to, ten la Khanh, toi ciia vua Nghieu, song tu doi Ngu- Ha, den doi 
Thuong, va tho 700 nam. 

NAM HOA KINH - N0I THIEN : Tieu dan 

Trang Chau, thuong goi la Trang tii (song trong khoang 369- 298 truoc Tay lich ky nguyen) , 
co le la mot nha Lao hoc cao nhat trong cac nha Lao hoc co nhat o Trung- Hoa. Tu- Ma- 
Thien trong Sii- Ky, chuong Trang tii liet- truyen noi: "Trang tii, nguoi xii Mong, ten la Chau 
; nhung khong thay noi la nguoi nuoc nao. 

Phi Nhan trong Tap- gia dan Dia- ly- Chi ra ma noi: Huyen Mong, thuoc ve nuoc Luong. Con 
Tu- Ma- Trinh trong Sach- an dan loi ciia Luu- Huong trong Biet- Luc lai noi: "nguoi xii 
Mong, nuoc Tong". 

Nhu vay, Trang tii la nguoi nuoc nao? Luong hay Tong? 

Ma- tu- Luan trong Trang tii Tong nhon khao nghien ciiu hai thuyet tren day rat ky, qua quyet 
rang Trang tii la nguoi nuoc Tong. 

Theo ho Ma thi Trang tii song vao khoang Luong Hue- Vuong nguyen- nien va Trieu- Hue- 
Van nguyen- nien. Luong- Hue- Van nguyen- nien thi thuoc ve khoang nam thii 6 doi Chau- 
Liet- Vuong, con Trieu- Hue- Van nguyen- nien thi nem vao khoang Chau- Van- Vuong nam 
thii 17. Nhu vay, chieu theo tay lich ky- nguyen, Trang tii song vao khoang 370 va 298 truoc 
Tay- lich ky- nguyen, nghia la dong thoi vdi Manh- tii, Hue- tii ben A, va Aristole, Zenon, 

Epicure ben Au. 

*** 

Su tich truyen lai ve doi song Trang tii that la mo- ho, khong co chi co the tin la dich xac 
duoc. Nhung, can cii vao sach Trang tii, nhung cau chuyen thuat lai, co mot gia- tri dac biet 

ve phuong- dien hoc- thuat, tuong cung khong nen khong luu y. 

*** 

Doi ong rat ngheo, gan nhu co han. 

" Trang tii ngheo tiing. . . sang Giam- ha- Hau vay Ma. Giam- ha- Hau noi:" Toi co cai ap sap 

nop tien liia. Toi se giiip ong tram luong. Co duoc khong?" 

Trang tii gian:" Horn qua, khi Chau den day, giua duong nghe co tieng keu. Ngoanh lai trong, 

thi thay mot con ca dang vung vay trong cai vet banh xe. Chau toi hoi:" Ca den day de lam 

gi?" Ca noi:" Toi la Thiiy- than o be Dong, ong co the giiip toi mot chen nuoc ma ciiu toi 

khong?" Chau toi noi:" De toi qua choi ben phia Nam nuoc Ngo nuoc Viet, roi khi ve, toi se 

lay nuoc Tay- giang ve don nguoi. Co duoc khong?" Ca gian noi:" Toi dang can nuoc, ong 

chi cho toi duoc mot it la dii song. Nay noi nhu ong, doi den luc ong ve thi den hang ca kho, 

se thay toi noi ay!" 

(Ngoai- Vat) 

*** 

O thien Son- Moc cung co noi: 

" Trang tii ban ao vai ma va, giay cot bang day gai. . . 

Gap Nguy- vuong. Nguy vuong noi: 

" Tien- sinh kho nao the u? 

Trang tii noi:" Ngheo, chii khong kho- nao. Ke si co Dao- Diic, Lao bao gio kho. ao rach, giay 



hir la ngheo, khong phai kho. Do chang qua la vi khong gap thai ma thoi. Pham con khi con 
vuon nhay nhot dang thong tha la nho gap duoc rung cay to canh dai, tron tru dai deo. Du cho 
bac thien xa nhu Phung- Mong cung khong sao ha no duoc. Neu no rui gap phai cay kho, gai 
goc, thi su hoat dong at kho- khan cham chap. Cung thoi mot con thu, ma su cu- dong de kho 
khac nhau, chan qua vi gap phai hoan- canh khong thuan lam cho no khong tu- do dung tan 
so- nang cua no. Nay, sanh khong nham thoi, tren thi hon- ma, duoi thi loan- tac lai muon 

khong cue nhoc vat va, co duoc khong?" 

*** 

Tuy la ngheo, ma long van luon-luon thanh- cao, khong bao gio chiu bo than trong canh vinh 

hoa phu quy. Tai Tri ay, neu muon loi danh, at han da co loi danh lap- tiic. Nhung, ong mot 

muc choi tu... 

So Uy- Vuong da rung nghe danh tai cua ong, da rung voi ong ra lam khanh- tuong. 

" Trang tu cau tren song Boc. So- Vuong sai hai quan dai phu dem le vat moi ong ra lam 

quan. Trang tu cam can cau khong nhuc nhich cung khong them nhin lai, noi:" Toi nghe vua 

So co con than quy, chet da ba nghin nam. Vua So quy no va cat tren mieu duong. Con quy 

ay, chiu chet de luu lai cai xuong cua minh cho nguoi sau quy trong hay lai chiu tha song ma 

keo le cai duoi cua minh trong bun?" Hai vi dai- phu noi:" Tha song ma keo le cai duoi trong 

bun con hon!" 

Trang tu noi:" Thoi, ve di. Ta day cung chiu keo le cai duoi cua minh trong bun. . ." (Thu- 

Thuy) 

*** 

O muc Lao Trang Than Han Liet Nguyen trong Su Ky, Tu Ma Thien doan ban ve nhan each 
cua ong:" Uy- vuong nuoc So nghe noi Trang Chau la nguoi hien trong thien ha, sai su dem 
hau le don, muon moi ra lam Tuong. Trang Chau cuoi, bao voi sii gia:" Cai loi cua nghin 
vang qua trong that, cai dia vi khanh tuong qua cung quy that. Nhung rieng ong cha thay con 
bo te hay sao? duoc nguoi ta san soc, duoc mac do trang sue van- ve de dua vao Thai- mieu. 
Luc ay du co muon duoc lam con Ion coi ha con duoc nua hay khong? ong hay di di, cho co 
den lam nhuc ta. Tha ta dong choi o chon bun lay nho ban con thay sung sudng hon la de cho 
ke lam chu mot nuoc kia troi buoc duoc ta. . . " 

" Nuoc Tong, co Tao- Thuong, duoc vua sai di sii nuoc Tan. Khi ra di, so xe vua du di. Di sii 

nuoc Tan, dep long vua Tan, duoc ban them tram co xe. 

Khi ve Tong, gap Trang tu, noi:" Pham song trong chon cung lu, ngo hep, ao giay xoc xech, 

thieu hut, khon don cung kho nhu ong, Thuong nay khong the chiu duoc. Lam cho buc chu 

muon xe vua y, de hau thuong tram xe, do la cho so truong cua Thuong nay vay". 

Trang tu noi:" Toi nghe noi Tan- vuong co benh, trieu thay thuoc vao chiia. Neu mo duoc mut 

ung cua ong ta, thi duoc thuong mot xe. Con ai liem mut ung, thi duoc thuong nam xe. Cach 

tru cang ha tien bao nhieu, thi so xe ban thuong cang duoc tang them bay nhieu. ong da tri 

benh Tan- vuong each nao ma duoc nhieu xe den the?" (Liet- ngu- khau) 

*** 

" Hue- tu lam quan nuoc Luong, Trang tu tinh qua nuoc Luong tham. nhung, co ke noi voi 
Hue- tu:" Trang tu ma qua day, la de cung ong tranh ngoi tuong quoc." Hue- tu so, cho ke 
canh chung suot ba ngay ba dem, doi Trang tu den thi bat. 
Trang tu hay chuyen, khong di. 

Sau roi lai den. Gap Hue- tu, Trang tu bao:" Phuong Nam co con chim ten la Uyen- So, ong 
co biet khong? Uyen- so tu bien Nam bay qua bien Bac, neu khong gap cay ngo dong thi 
khong chiu dau; neu khong gap hot luyen thi khong an; neu khong gap nuoc suoi trong thi 
khong uong. Co con chim ut dang ria xac chuot chet giiia canh dong thay Uyen- so bay 
ngang, so no gianh mieng an nen keu to len de doa Uyen- so dung dap xuong. Nay, vi so cai 
ngoi tuong quoc cua ong o nuoc Luong nen ong keu to len de doa toi sao?" 



(Thu- Thuy) 



.'.:;* 



Theo truyen thuyet thi Trang tu giao du rat than mat vdi Hue- tu, ten la Thi, cung la ngudi 

Tong, va thudng hay bien- nan vai nhau ludn. Trong sach Trang tu co rat nhieu sir tich ve sir 

tranh luan ciia hai nha, cho ta thay nhan- sinh- quan, cung nhu lap- trudng tu- tudng ciia doi 

ben, khac nhau xa, mac du hai ben citng chiu anh hudng Ian nhau. 

" Hue- tu noi vai Trang ru: Nguy- Vuang thudng toi mot giong dua to. Toi trong no co trai 

nang den nam thach. Dung no dung nude, no nang, khong cat nhac duoc. Bo no ra lam bau, 

thi lai khong con dung duoc cho nao. Dau phai no khong to Ion, nhung vi cho no la vo dung 

nen toi dap bo no di. 

Trang tu noi: The la ong vung ve cho dai dung no. Nuoc Tong co ngudi kheo che duoc mon 

thuoc chua ran nut da tay, doi doi chuyen lam nghe uom to. Co ngudi hay biet, den xin mua 

phuong thuoc do mot tram luong vang. Anh ta ben nhom than toe ban rang: Nha ta doi doi 

lam nghe uom to, loi khong hon so vang ay, vay xin de cho ban. 

Ngudi khach duoc phuong thuoc, dem thuyet vua Ngo. Nuoc Viet co nan, vua Ngo sai anh 

lam tudng. Nham mua Dong, thuy chien vdi ngudi nude Viet, ngudi Viet dai bai. Vua Ngo 

ben cat dat ma phong thudng cho anh ta. Cung thdi mot phuong thuoc tri ran nut da tay, ma 

mot ngudi duoc phong, mot ngudi khong ra khoi cai nghe uom to; do la tai cho biet dung hay 

khong biet dung ma khac nhau vay. 

Nay ong co trai dua nang den nam thach, sao khong biet dung no lam trai noi ma tha qua song 

qua ho, ma lo chi ho vo bau tan, khong co cho dac dung? Thi ra vi cai long cua ong hep hoi 

chuatruc- dat do". 

(Tieu- Dieu- Du) 

*** 

" Mot khi khac, Hue- tu noi vdi Trang tu:" Toi co cot cay to, ngudi ta goi no la cay Vu. Goc 
no loi 16m khong dung day muc. Nhanh goc no thi cong queo khong dung quy cu. Dem trong 
no d dudng cai, ngudi tho moc cung khong them nhin. Nay loi noi ciia ong to ldn ma vo- 
dung, nen ngudi ngudi deu khong them nghe." 

Trang tu noi:" Ong rieng chang thay con meo rung do sao? Co minh dung nup, nhin vat di 
rang, nhay tay nhay dong, khong hiem cao thap, ket trong do bay, chet noi ludi rap. Den nhu 
con thai nguu, ldn nhu vang may che mot phuong trdi, ke ra cung la to that, nhung khong the 
bat duoc chuot. Nay ong co cay to, lai so no vo dung. Sao khong dem no trong noi tich mich, 
giiia canh dong rong bao la. Khach ngao du khong lam gi, ngoi nghi dudi goc no, khach tieu 
dieu nam nghi dudi bong no. No se khong chet yeu vi bua riu, cung khong so vat nao lam hai. 
Khong co cho nao co the dung duoc, thi khon kho tu dau ma den duoc?" 

(Tieu- Dieu- Du) 

*** 

" Hue- tu goi Trang tu ma noi:" Ldi ciia ong vo- dung". Trang tu noi:" biet cai chi la vo dugn, 

thi cung da biet no sao la huu dung. Nhu dat rong, ngudi ta cho no la huu dung, vi nhd no ma 

di duoc. Nhung, neu trat chan te chim tan suoi vang, ngudi ta con goi no la hiiu dung nua 

khong? 

Hue- tu noi: Vo- dung. 

Trang tu noi: Vay thi ro vo- dung la hiiu- dung do." 

(Ngoai- vat) 

*** 

O thien Thu- Thuy, thuat rang: 

" Trang tu cung Hue- tu dung choi tren cau hao thanh. Trang tu noi:" Ca xanh, boi loi thung 

dung. Ca vui do." Hue- tu noi:" Ong khong phai la ca, sao biet ca vui?" 

Trang tu noi:" Ong khong phai toi, sao biet toi khong biet!" 

Hue- tu noi:" toi khong phai ong, nen khong the biet duoc ong, con ong khong phai ca, ong 



cung khong sao biet duoc cai vui cua ca." 

Trang tu noi:" Xin xet lai cau hoi dau. Ong hoi toi lam sao biet duoc ca vui? Da biet la toi 
biet, ong moi co hoi" lam sao ma biet". . . Thi day, lam the nay: toi diing tren hao thanh ma 
biet duoc". 

(Thu- Thuy) 

*** 

Ve sau, Hue- tu mat. Mot khi Trang tu di qua mo ong, to y thuong tiec:" Tu khi phu- tu mat, 

toi con cung ai chat van, ban bac duoc nua!" 

Gia- dinh ong nhu the nao, su khong may noi. Chi biet ong co vo, va vo ong chet. 

" Vo Trang tu chet, Hue- tu den dieu. Thay Trang tu ngoi, duoi xoac hai chan, vua vo bon, 

vua ca. 

Hue- tu noi: Cung nguoi o toi gia, co con Ion ma nguoi chet lai khong khoc, cung da la qua 

roi, con vo bon ca, khong phai thai qua sao? 

Trang tu noi: Khong. Luc nang moi chet, toi sao chang dong long. Nhung nghi lai hoi trudc, 

do von la khong sinh. Chang nhung la khong sinh, ma do von la khong hinh, ma do von la 

khong khi. Do chang qua la tap- chat o trong hu khong ma bien ra ma co khi, khi bien ra ma 

co hinh, hinh bien ra ma co sinh, roi lai bien ra nua ma co tu. Sinh, hinh, khi, tu co khac nao 

xuan, ha, thu, dong, bon mua hanh- van. Va lai, nguoi ta nay da yen nghi noi Nha- Lon ma toi 

cii than khoc chang la tu noi khong thong Mang u? Nen toi khong khoc." 

(Chi- Lac) 

*** 

Trang tu mat vao nam nao, thi khong thay co sach nao ghi chep. Chi biet rang luc" Trang tu 
gan chet, cac de tu muon hau tang, nhung Trang tu khong cho. Trang tu noi:" Ta co troi dat 
lam quan quach, nhat nguyet lam ngoc bich, tinh- tu lam ngoc chau, van- vat lam le tong. 
Dam tang cua ta nhu vay, khong du sao? Ma con them chi cho lam viec!" 
De tu thua:" Chung con so dieu qua an xac Thay!" 

Trang tu noi:" Tren thi dieu qua an, duoi thi gioi kien an. Cuop day ma cho rieng do, sao lai 
co thien lech the!" 
(Liet- Ngu- Khau) 

NAM HOA KINH - N0I THIEN 2 : 

II. UYEN- NGUYEN CUA HOC- THUYET TRANG Ttf: 

Cai hoc cua Trang tu, tuy do Lao tu ma ra, nhung biet lap ra mot phai rieng: phai Trang hoc. 
Su- Ky cho rang" cai hoc cua ong khong dau la ban khong den, nhung goc o loi day cua Lao 
tu..."(l) 

Phe- binh hoc- thuyet Trang tu, thien Thien- Ha trong sach Trang tu co noi:" Dao van tham 
mat, vo hinh ma bien hoa vo thuong. Chet, Song cung Troi Dat ngang nhau, cung than minh 
qua lai va lui toi ma thay khong thiet- thuc. Van- vat bao la ma luc tro ve, khong them cho 
Dao. Do la cho nghien ciiu cua nguoi xua. Cho do Trang Chau nghe qua, dep y. Muon truyen- 
ba no ra, Trang Chau muon cau chuyen mau- ngo, tieng noi hoang- duong, loi van khong ben, 
thuong phong- tung mung- lung ma khong cao di. . . Trang Chau thay doi chim dam trong 6- 
troc, khong hieu duoc loi minh nen dung" chi ngon" ma gieo khap, dung" trung ngon" lam 
thuc su, dung" ngu ngon" cho rong hieu. Roi rieng mot minh lai qua cung troi dat tinh- than 
ma khong ngao- nghe van- vat khong hoi toi thi phi, lai song chung cung the- tuc. Sach cua 
Trang Chau thi khoi- vi ma diu dang, khong hai. Loi tuy sam- si, ma thay dang y ran long khi 
tra. Cho sung- thuc cua do khong dung dang. Tren thi dao cung tao vat, duoi ban cung" ngoai 
tu sanh, vo chung- thuy". Ban nguyen cua do thi hoang- dai ma sang sua, sau rong va phong 
tung. Tong chi cua do co the thich- hop voi bac thuong- tri. Tuy nhien, tong- chi va ban- can 
do deu ling theo tao hoa ma dat den van- vat. Ly cua do thi khong cung." 
(Thien- ha) 



* * * 



Nhu vay, ta thay rang hoc thuat cua Lao va Trang, cd cho khong dong nhau. 

Lao tu cho rang" ciing ran thi de bi be nat, nhon ben thi de bi mon hit"; va" Kien cudng gia, 

tii chi do" (chuong 76) (ciing va manh hon la ban cua cai chet) , cho nen ong chi cho con 

ngudi con duong de ma tranh khoi sir do nat mon gay. . ." Tri nhi doanh chi, bat nhu ky di; suy 

nhi chuyet chi, bat kha truong bao, kim ngoc man duong, mac chi nang thu; phu qui nhi kieu, 

tu di ky cuu; cdng toai than thoi: thien chi dao". (Om giu chau day, chang bang thoi di. Dung 

dao sac ben, khong ben duoc lau; vang ngoc day nha, khd ma giu lau; giau sang ma kieu, tu 

vdi hoa uu; nen viec lui than, do la dao Trdi) . (Dao Due Kinh chuong 9) . 

Trang tu thi chii truong su" vo chung- thuy, ngoai tu sinh", cho nen cho ma Lao tu thac- mac 

cham- chu, thi Trang tu lai nhin voi cap mat than nhien, lanh- lung nhu khong dang ke. 

*** 

Trong thoi ky Tien Han (2) , tu- tudng cua Lao hoc duoc truyen ba, con tu tudng cua Trang 

hoc thi mai den thoi Hau- Han (3) mdi duoc de cap den va pho- bien. 

Buoi dau nha Han, danh tu Hoang- Lao duoc xung- tung va pho- thong, nhung den cuoi nha 

Han (4) mdi doi ra thanh danh- tu Lao Trang. 

Cac nha chu giai Lao tu, song vao khoang dau nha Han, khong he noi den ten Trang tu, con 

cac nha chu- giai Trang tu thi thuoc ve khoang nha Tan (265- 420) sau Tay- lich ky- nguyen, 

tiic la trieu- dai noi lien voi nha Han (Tarn- Quoc) . Cho nen, cac hoc gia doi Han, khi noi den 

Lao hoc la chi nghi den Lao tu ma thoi, nghia la chi quan tarn den van de doi pho voi thoi 

cuoc. Cho nen trong Nghe- Van- Chi so di cho rang Lao hoc (tiic la cai hoc cua Lao tu) la" 

phuong- phap cua cac bac vuong- dao tai- vi", la vi the. That vay, Lao tu soan quyen Dao- 

Diic Kinh la cho cac nha cam quyen tri nude thoi bay gid: ong de- xudng giai- phap" vo- vi 

nhi tri". 

Tu- Ma- Thien noi ve cai hoc cua Lao Trang cd viet:" Triet- ly cua Trang tu, khac vdi Lao tu, 

lai muon sieu- thoat khoi van- de nhan- gian the- su. Khi ong noi den cac vi vua dau tien cua 

nha Han, cho rang cac bac ay lay" vd vi nhi- tri" la cd y muon ndi rang cac bac tri nude ay ap 

dung triet ly cua Lao tu. Chi den cuoi doi nha Han (220 sau T. L) thi ngudi ta mdi bat dau chu 

y den Huyen- hoc, bay gid sach cua Lao tu cung duoc ngudi ta dung cai hoc cua Trang tu ma 

giai thich. Nhu vay ta thay rang, tuy khdi thuy ha nhu lap truong triet- ly cua hai nha dung 

rieng nhau ma van cd su lien he vdi nhau ludn." 

Cho tuong dong cua Lao tu va Trang tu la ca hai deu cung mot quan niem ve Dao va Due, va 

ca hai deu chong doi tu tuong truyen thong va che do duong thoi. Va, vi vay ma Tu- Ma- 

Thien dat ten hoc- phai nay la Dao- Due Gia, vi ong cho rang hai quan niem Dao va Due la 

nen tang chung cua Lao hoc. 



*** 



Trang tu song vao khoang nua the ky thu ba trudc Tay lich ky- nguyen (369- 298 trudc T. L 

ky- nguyen) tiic la thuoc ve mot thoi- ky hon- loan nhat ciia Trung- Hoa: thoi Chien- quoc. 

Bdi vay, co ngudi cho rang" trudc mot hoan- canh xa hoi nhieu nhuong ma phai trai roi bdi, 

that gia khong phan, chung ta han khong lay chi lam la ma thay Trang tii chii truong tu tudng 

sieu nhien, dem cap mat binh than ma lanh lung ma nhin xem xa hoi su vat". Ndi the, khong 

han la khong cd ly do, vi neu xet chung tu tudng cua Trang tu, ta thay ong cue luc phan doi 

hau het moi hoc thuyet, che do cua duong thoi. . . 

d thien Te- Vat- Luan, ong ndi:" Co hiiu Nho, Mac chi thi phi, di thi ky so phi, nhi phi ky so 

thi". (bdi vay mdi cd cai Phai Quay cua Nho Mac. Nho Mac thi lay Phai lam Quay, lay Quay 

lam Phai) 

Dai dien cho Nho- hoc thdi bay gid thi cd Manh- tu; con dai dien cho Mac- hoc thi cd Tong 

Hinh, Hue- Thi va Cong- ton Long thi dai dien cho nhdm danh gia. 

O thien Te- Vat- Luan ong ndi:" Vi thanh ho tarn nhi huu Thi Phi, thi kim nhat thich Viet nhi 

tich chi da. . . Co di kien bach chi muoi chung" (Long minh vi chua thanh ma co Phai Quay. 

Nen chi ngay horn nay di sang nude Viet ma tu bua horn qua da tdi do roi vay. . . Cho nen, 



suot doi cam chiu toi tarn vi thuyet" Kien Bach") . 

Cau" kim nhat thich Viet nhi tich chi da" la am chi bien- thuyet cua Hue Thi; con cau" di 

kien- bach chi muoi chung" la noi ve thuyet Lien bach cua Cong- ton Long. 

do la nhung cho ma Trang tu phe binh hoc thuyet cua nguoi dong thoi, dem cai thuyet" te thi 

phi, dong di, tieu dai" cua ong ra ma cham doi cac nha thich dung bien luan. Theo ong thi" dai 

dien bat ngdn", con nhung bien gia tren dau cho la nhung bon nguoi bien dat. (tieu bien) . 

Thoi ay co Tu- Hoa- tu chu truong su" toan sinh vi thuong" va Dam- Ha chu truong" vi- than, 

bat vi quoc", deu la nhung ke thua hudng cai hoc cua Duong- Chu. Trang tu dem cai thuyet 

Te- Vat de danh do long tu- ky, chia phan Nhi- Nga cua nguoi dong thoi con song thien trong 

gidi Nhi- nguyen. La vi, theo Trang tu, he con noi" vi minh" tiic la con thay chi co minh ma 

khong thay co nguoi, trong khi su that thi" Vat Nga vi Nhat". 

O thien Dai- Tdng- Su ong viet: Co chi chan- nhan, bat tri duyet sanh, bat tri 6- tu. . . Bat tri so 

di sanh, bat tri so di tu, bat tri tuu tien, bat tri tuu hau" (Bac chan nhan doi xua, khong tham 

song, khong ghet chet. . . Khong biet cho so di song, khong biet cho so di chet, khong biet cho 

den trudc, khong biet cho den sau) . . . Nghia la nguoi dat Dao phai la ke dung tren van de 

Sanh, Tu, khong vi ky, khong qua chu trong den ban than ma suy tinh loi hai qua dang nhu 

cac chu truong noi tren. 

Phan doi nhung tu tuong vi ky, tiic la phan doi long tham lam ich ky, ong lai cung phan doi ca 

su" Xa- ky thich- nhon", nghia la bo cai chan- tanh cua minh ma chay theo ke khac. o thien 

Dai- Tong- Su ong noi:" Hanh danh that ky, phi si da. Vong than bat chan, phi dich nhan da. 

(Lam theo danh, ma bo mat minh, khong phai la ke si. Lam mat than minh, khong ro cai le 

chan that noi minh, cung chang phai la ke sai duoc nguoi vay) . Ong cho rang" nhu Ho- Bat- 

Giai, Vu- Quang, Ba- Di, Thuc- Te, Co- Tu, Tu- Du, Ky- Tha, Than Do- Dich, thi dich nhan 

chi dich, thich nhan chi thich nhi bat tu thich ky thich gia da. (Dai- Tong- Su) 

Va, nhu Lao tu, ong cung cue luc phan doi Nhan, Nghia cua phai huu- vi thoi ay. Cai hoc" 

true- vat" va su" cau- tri" cung bi ong da pha:" Ngo sinh da huu nhai, nhi tri da vo nhai. Di 

hvru nhai, tuy vo nhai, dai hi!" (Duong-Sinn- Chu) . 

*** 

Tom lai, doi vdi thoi dai, ong phan doi hau het cac hoc thuyet cung che do thoi do: phan doi 
Nho, Mac, phan doi nhom danh gia bien thuyet nhu Hue- Thi, Cong- Ton- Long, phan doi 
long vi- ky, trong tu- sinh, sat loi- hai, phan doi ca Nhan, Nghia va cai thoi" cau- tri", " true- 
hoc", " xa- ky thich nhon", nhat la nhiing hanh dong huu- vi cua nhom phap- gia thoi bay gio. 
Tuy nhien su phan doi ay cua Trang tu khong phai la loi phan doi cong kich cua nguoi phan 
the (ghet doi la vi bat man doi vdi doi) ma thuc ra la loi lap- ngon dac biet cua nguoi da" vuot 
qua ben ben kia" " dao bi ngan", theo danh tu nha Phat, con nguoi giai thoat" de trd ve nguon 
coi" cua cai" Song Mot" ma ta se thay trinh bay sau day. 

NAM HOA KINH - N0I THIEN 3 : 
III. SACH CUA TRANG Tlf 

Sach Trang tu, theo Han- thu Nghe- Van- Chi, thi co den nam muoi hai (52) thien. Nay chi 

thay con co ba muoi ba (33) thien. Co phai vi nguoi sau (Quach- Tuong) don laiv phan lai 

thien chuong, hay vi nguoi ta da lam lac di 19 thien kia? 

Ba muoi ba thien, lai chia ra lam 3 phan (theo ban cua Quach- Tuong la ban thong- hanh hien 

thoi) : Noi- thien, Ngoai- thien va Tap- thien. 

Noi- thien gom co 7 thien: 

Tieu- Dieu- Du 

Te- Vat- Luan 

Duong- Sinh- Chu 

Nhon- Gian- The 

Due- Sung- Phu 

Dai- Tong- Su 



Ung- Be- Vuong 

Ngoai- thien gom co 15 thien: 

Bien- Mou 

Ma- Be 

Khii- Cu 

Tai- Huu 

Thien- Bia 

Thien- Bao 

Thien- Van 

Khac- y 

Thien- Tanh 

Thu- Thuy 

Chi- Lac 

Bat- Sinh 

San- Moc 

Bien- Tu- Phuang 

Tri- Bac- Bu 

Tap- thien gom co 1 1 thien: 

Canh- Tang- So 

Tu- V6- Quy 

Tac- Buong 

Ngoai- Vol 

Ngu- Ngon 

Nhuong- Vuong 

Bao- Chich 

Buyet- Kiem 

Ngu- Phu 

Liet- Ngu- Khau 

Thien- Ha 

Su phan biet chuong thu nhu tren, phan dong cac hoc gia deu cho rang khong phai do chinh 

tay Trang tu sap dat, ma do nguoi sau an bai. 

To- Bong- Pha, trong Trang tu Tu Buong Ky cho rang" phan biet cac chuong, dat ten cac 

thien la do noi the tuc, khong phai ban- y cua Trang tu". 

Con Buong- Lan, trong Lao Bam Bich- Tanh- Banh Hoa nien dai khao va Co- su bien thi cho 

rang" su phan- biet Noi, Ngoai va Tap thien deu la do tay cua Luu- Huong ca". 

Can cii vao van- thai va van- mach ma xem, thi thay chi co Noi- thien la bieu- thi duoc cho 

trong- yeu cua hoc thuyet Trang tu ma thoi. Con Ngoai- thien va Tap- thien, thi phan nhieu 

roi rac va chi ban di ban lai nhung tu tuong da pho- dien o Noi- thien ma thoi. 

Pham nghien ciiu ve mot hoc- thuyet nao, su tim tai- lieu chinh- xac va phe- binh tai- lieu la 

van de quan trong nhat. Co duoc nhu the thi su nghien ciiu cua ta mdi duoc chinh- dinh, khoi 

su xuyen tac va bat cong, mang toi vu oan co nhan. 

Phan biet duoc su chan- nguy trong cac thien chuong trong sach Trang tu la viec rat gay go 

phien phiic. Trong quyen Trang tu tinh hoa (5) , da co danh rieng mot chuong kha day du cho 

van de nay, nen khong lap lai noi day lam gi nua. 

Nay chi torn lai dai- khai nhu sau: Noi- thien rat khac vdi Ngoai va Tap- thien ca ve Van- 

Nghe, Tu- Tuong va than thai trong cau van. Neu Noi- thien do Trang tu viet ra, thi Ngoai va 

Tap thien chac chan do ke khac viet, khong the la cung mot nguoi duoc. Tuy vay, trong Ngoai 

va Tap thien thinh thoang cung co mot vai chuong ma than- van la lung hung- vi, da chang 

nhiing van hay ma tii cung tham, neu khong phia do nhung ke co mot hoc- luc uyen tham nhu 

Trang tu, chac cung kho long ma viet ra cho duoc. 



Cho nen, mot phan cung co the cho la chinh tay Trang tu viet ra, con phan nhieu chac chan la 

do ke khac hoc Trang tu ma viet ra. 

Nhu d Ngoai- thien, cac thien Bien- Mou, Ma- De, Khii- Cu, Khac- y, Thien- TanThien thi 

van khi binh dien, loi noi rat tarn thudng, thien can. Toan thien chi co mot y, nhung ma cii noi 

di noi lai ma thoi, dudng nhu la nhung bai sach luan cua hau hoc. 

Thien Thien- Van noi ve viec Khong- tu vieng Lao tu de hoi Le thi lai giong vdi cau chuyen 

chep d Su- Ky cua Tu- Ma- Thien, ta lai thay rang van trong Thien- Van rat tap nhap, khi- 

tuong tarn thudng khong sao theo kip van- tu trong Su- ky, co khi con cao hon mot buc la 

khac. Cho nen, chac chan thien Thien- Van d Ngoai- thien la nguy tho, do ke hau hoc them 

vao. 

Cac thien Dao- Chich, Ngu- Phu, Duyet- Kiem, Nhuong- Vuong thi van tu thien- bac, nhung 

cho chi trich Khong- tu day ngao nghe, thda ma chi noi de cho ha he long phan uat, khong 

giong than- thai cua Trang tu d Noi- thien. 

Con nhu cac thien Thien- Dao, Thien- Dia, Chi- Lac, Son- Moc, Tai- Huu thi tu tuong tap 

nhap, nguoi viet co khi chua that hieu tinh than tu tuong cua Trang tu nen nhieu khi xuyen 

tac, co khi dung loi noi mom mep cua Nho- gia ma giang ve Trang tu. 

Do deu la nhiing bai do cac hoc gia theo phai Lao Trang ve sau viet ra ca. 

*** 

Doi voi Noi- thien, hoc gia phan dong deu nhin nhan rang rat co the deu do chinh tay Trang tu 

viet ra. 

Nhung Duong- Lan cho rang, rieng chuong Tu- Tang- Ho o thien Dai Tong- Su khong giong 

voi may chuong truoc ma goi ngay Khong- tu. Rieng toi, cung hoai nghi chuong nay, la vi 

trong thien Dai- Tong- Su, tu tuong cua Trang tu rat thuan nhat doi voi van- de Sanh- Tu. 

Trang tu cho rang Sanh- Tu la mot thien ve cai nghia cua Sanh- tu. Tu Tang- Ho chet, hai 

nguoi ban danh dan va ca ben xac Tang- Ho:" Than 6i! Tang- Ho! Than- 6i! Tang- Ho! Do 

tro ve cai chan, con chung ta con la nguoi! Oi!". The la tu tieng ca ay, ta thay nhung nguoi 

nay mung cho Tang- Ho, ma rieng buong cho minh con phai song lam nguoi. Nhu vay, ta 

thay toan chuong bieu thi cai y" vui chet buon song", rat trai voi y tuong cua Trang tu o Te- 

Vat cung nhiing chuong khac o thien Dai- Tong- Su nua. 

Vay, rieng mot chuong nay, toi tin rang khong phai cua Trang tu viet ra, va ke phan thien 

chuong vi xem xet khong ki nen chep lam vao day. Ta nen bo nan chuong nay va sap no qua 

Ngoai hay Tap thien. 

Thien Nhon- Gian- The cung dang hoai nghi la nguy- tho nua. La vi the- tai chung cua Noi- 

thien khong giong voi thien nay. Trong cac thien khac o Noi- thien thi deu co luan, co du. 

Nhu ling- De- Vuong thi co truoc du, sau luan, Dai- Tong- Su thi truoc luan, sau du. Diic- 

Sung- Phu thi truoc du, sau luan; Duong- Sinh- Chu thi truoc luan, sau du. Chi nhu hai thien 

Tieu- Dieu- Du va Te- Vat- Luan thi du va luan giao lan nhau hon nhien nhu mot the. Nhu 

vay ta thay rang o Noi thien, van phap toi lui co quy- tac lam. 

Duy co Nhon- Gian- The thi khong phai vay nua: 

Chuong thu nhat: noi ve chuyen Nhan- Hoi muon du- thuyet Ve- Quan, hoi y noi Khong- tu. 

Chuong thu hai: chuyen giua cong- tu Cao di xii nude Te. 

Chuong thii ba: chuyen giua Nhan- Hap va Cu- Ba- Ngoc. 

Chuong tgii tu: chuyen nguoi tho moc ten Thach qua nude Te gap cay lich- xa. 

Chuong thu nam: chuyen Nam- Ba Tii- Ky thay cay dai moc. 

Chuong thu sau: chuyen mot nguoi que d nude Te. 

Chuong thu bay: chuyen Khong- tu qua nude So gap Cuong- Tiep- Du. 

Toan thien thuat rong la co- su, khong giong but phap ciia sau thien kia. Nhu vay, khong phai 

la do mot nguoi viet ra. 

Hon nua, y nghia trong thien Nhon- Gian- The nay cung khong lien quan: chuong thu 4, thu 

5, thii 6 deu lay ti- du nhung vat nho bat tai ma duoc an toan, khong an chiu gi vdi tu tuong 



cua nhung chuong tren. Chuong 4 va 5 cung deu la nhung y tuong trung- phuc. 

Chuong 7 noi ve chuyen Khong- tu qua nude So gap Cuong- Tiep- Du, thi cac doan lai khong 

hop nhau. a doan nhat va doan nhi ta thay Khong- tu la nguoi sang suot ve Dao, thay loi 

Trang tu ma ban ve Dao Due. Nhung qua doan chdt, hot nhien Khong- tu lai bien thanh nguoi 

am muoi. The la truoc sau, but phap khong thong vay. 

Chuong thu 8, noi ve viec Khong- tu qua So thi cau chuyen cung nhu van- tu trong bai ca deu 

lai giong het van cua sach Luan- Ngu. Trong Luan- Ngu, Thien- Vi- tu noi:" So Cuong Tiep 

Du ca nhi qua Khong- tu viet:" Phung he! Phung he! Ha due chi suy, van gia bat kha gian, lai 

gia du kha truy. Di nhi! Di nhi! Kim chi rung chanh gia dai nhi" 

Trong Nhon- gian- The thi viet:" So Cuong Tiep Du du ky mon viet:" Phung he! Phung he! 

Ha nhu due chi suy da! Lai the bat kha dai, vang the bat kha truy da. Thien ha huu dao, thanh 

nhon thanh yen, thien ha vo dao, thanh nhon sanh yen. Di ho! Di ho! Lam nhon di due! Dai 

ho! Hoach dia nhi xu" 

Sach Luan- ngu co truoc sach Trang tu, thi day qua la Nhon- Gian- The chep van Luan- Ngu. 

Le nao Trang tu, mot nguoi khi phach phong khoang, lai di bat chuoc ke khac hay sao? 

Huong chi, tu tuong Trang tu o Tieu- Dieu- Du va Te- Vat- Luan thi that la rong rai, con o 

Nhon- gian- the thi loi le lai rat cau chap tarn thuong nhu hang nha Nho, khong giong tu 

tuong o Tieu- Dieu va Te- Vat:" dit gap canh nao, du den the nao, giu mot niem tho cha la chi 

hieu, tho vua la chi trung. . ." (Nhon- Gian- The) phai chang la do mom mep cua nha Nho? 

The nen, thien nay can phai loai ra khoi Noi- thien. 

Tom lai, chi co Noi- thien la dung duoc de nghien cuu tu tuong cua Trang tu ma thoi. Nhung 

phai loai thien Nhon- Gian- The, va chuong thu hai o thien Dai- Tong- Su, tiic la chuong Tii 

Tang- Ho vi la nguy tho. Ban dich nay cung loai Nhon- Gian- The ra khoi Noi- thien va sap 

vao Ngoai- thien. 

Chu thick: 

(1) " Ky hoc vi sa bat khuy, nhien ky yeu ban quy vu Lao tu chi ngon... " (Su- Ky) . 

(2) Tien- Han: (206 tru&c Tdy- lich Ky- nguyen) den nam thu 9 sau ky- nguyen T.L. 

(3) Hau- Han: (25- 220 sau T.L ky- nguyen) . 

(4) Ddu nha Han (khoi vao nam 206 tru&c Tdy- lich ky nguyen; cuoi dai nha Han) khoi vao 
khoang 220 sau T. L ky- nguyen, nghia la each nhau khoang tren 300 nam. 

(5) Trang- tu tinh- hoa (cung mot tdc gia) . 

NAM HOA KINH - Phai Quay va Xau Tot : 

A. Su binh dang giua Phai Quay va Xau Tot: 

Dung theo quan niem nhi nguyen (chi thay co mot cai ta rieng biet) ma xem, thi se thay su vat 

co phai, co quay ro rang. Phai, la cai gi co loi cho ta. Quay, la cai gi bat loi cho ta. 

Trai lai, neu khong thien chap ma biet nhin rong ra su vat khac ben ngoai ta, thi biet dau cai 

ma ta goi la "phai" doi vdi ta day, vi tat cung con la "phai" doi vdi ke khac? Ngay cung mot 

viec ma ta cho la "phai" doi vdi ta bay gid, se khong con la "phai" niia doi vdi ta sau nay! 

Nhu vay Phai va Quay la mot viec ca nhan tuong doi va chu quan, het sue bat thuong. Neu no 

ra de ma noi vdi thien ha, de ma lam tieu chuan chung va bat ca thien ha phai cung theo, thi 

con nghia ly gi nua! 

"Nguoi nam trong cho am thap thi sinh ra dau lung va te liet mot ben minh; con ca chach thi 

co sao khong? Nguoi d tren cay thi run ray, so set; con loai khi vuon cd sao khong? Ba loai 

ay, ai biet cho nao la cho d chinh? Con nguoi thi ua an thit tha; huou nai thi thich an co non; 

ret thi cho ran con la ngon; chim meo chim cu thi nghien an chuot bo. Bon loai ay, ai biet mdn 

an nao la chinh vi? Mao Tuong Le Co, nguoi thay thi cho la dep ma ca thay thi Ian sau, huou 

nai thay thi chay dai. Bon loai ay, ai biet sac dep nao la chinh sac trong thien ha?" 

Moi vat deu thuan theo cho hop cua minh: khong co cho nao la cho hop chung cho tat ca van 

vat. Moi vat deu biet ngon theo cho ngon rieng cua minh: khong cd vi nao la ngon chung cho 



tat ca van vat. Moi vat deu co sir ua thich theo mot cai dep rieng theo minh: khong co cai dep 
nao la cai dep chung chi tat ca van vat. Va nhu vay, neu da khong co cai dep nao la cai dep 
chung de lam cai guong tan my chung cho tat ca moi vat, thi cung khong co cai thien nao co 
the dem ra lam cai guong tan thien chung cho tat ca moi nguoi. 

Quan niem ve binh dang cua Trang tu khong giong vdi quan niem thong thuong cua nguoi 
doi. Binh dang cua nguoi thuong hieu la mot thu binh dang hinh thiic may mdc, hieu theo cai 
nghia nong can la san bang moi su moi vat, bat chap cai luat "bat binh dang tu nhien" trong 
van vat cung nhu trong loai nguoi: sang, hen, trf, ngu, Ion, nho, trai, gai. . . deu bat buoc phai 
uon minh song theo mot khuon kho luan- ly, giao due, luat phap giong nhau. Noi truong hoc, 
ke sang, nguoi toi, gai, trai. . .deu chiu chung mot loi giao due nhu nhau; nguoi ta quen nghr 
den cai ca tinh dac biet cua moi nguoi moi vat. Van minh loai nguoi so dr khong the phat 
trien mau le duoc cung vi quan niem lac lam nay. Trong nhieu che do nguoi ta con de cao vai 
tro cua xa hoi den doi ca nhan khong con cho nao de thd duoc bang cai mui cua minh, xem 
duoc theo cap mat cua minh, cam duoc theo qua tim cua minh nua, ma suot doi chi biet nhan 
nhung chi thi cua be tren, va song rap theo mot khuon kho da an dinh chung cho tat ca moi 
nguoi. 

Theo Trang tu, "tfnh" cua vat khong dong nhau, tiic la cho ma nha xa hoi hoc ngay nay goi la 
"nhung bat binh dang tu nhien". Vay, cho "khong dong" (bat dong) cua van vat, ta phai biet 
"nhan lanh", biet "chiu" no, va hay de cho moi vat tu do song theo cai song cua no. Do la 
nhan cho "bat dong" ma lam cho van vat "dong nhau" vi moi vat da duoc tu do song theo 
"ban tfnh" cua minh. 

Tat ca moi che do chanh tri, xa hoi, luan- ly tu xua den nay deu, ft hay nhieu, quy dinh mot 
cai tan thien mau de lam tieu chuan chung cho tu tuong hanh vi con nguoi va bat buoc nguoi 
nguoi deu theo do ma song. Do la cuong ep cho "khong the dong" phai "dong nhau". Phai 
chang la dieu rat sai voi tu nhien, lam thong kho con nguoi vo cung! Moi vat deu co cai tfnh 
tu nhien cua no: su ua ghet cung vi do ma khong the "dong" nhau. Nay lai cuong ep nguoi 
nguoi deu phai thua nhan mot le phai khac voi cai le phai cua ho, khac voi long hieu 6 rieng 
cua ho, la lam cho ho mat tu do song theo cai Song cua ho. Cho nen, Tu Do va Binh dang 
khong the di doi voi nhau duoc: he duoc Tu Do thi khong binh dang, ma theo binh dang, cai 
thu binh dang san bang moi vat, thi mat tu do. 

Theo Trang tu thi khong phai vay. Tu Do va binh dang lai di doi voi nhau nhu bong voi hinh. 
So dr con nguoi duoc binh dang la nho co tu do, ma duoc tu do la nho co binh dang. Nhan co 
tu do va quy trong tu do thi moi co cau mong cho van vat, moi vat deu duoc tu do song theo 
cai Song cua minh. Ma, neu van vat, vat nao cung song duoc cai song cua minh, do la van vat 
nho tu do ma duoc binh dang. Cung nhu, nhan co binh dang thi moi chiu de cho van vat, vat 
nao cung duoc song theo minh thi van vat, vat nao cung nho do ma duoc tu do. 
Tom lai, pham da chu truong tu do tuyet doi, at cung phai chu truong binh dang tuyet doi. La 
vi neu khong thua nhan binh dang tuyet doi, moi co cho rang giua nguoi va nguoi, giua vat va 
vat co cai nay hay hon cai kia, hoac co cai kia hay hon cai nay. Da nhan co cai nay hay hon 
cai kia, nguoi nay hay hon nguoi kia moi co cho rang nguoi hay phai lo cai tao nguoi khong 
hay, de cho do tro ve duong hay theo quan niem chu quan tarn thoi cua minh. Nhu the la ta 
khong nhan co tu do cua con nguoi. Khong nhin nhan tu do cua con nguoi moi co su cuong 
ep ke khac phai song theo quan niem ve dieu phai le quay theo ta, khong duoc song tu do theo 
cai song cua ho. Neu do khong phai la chuyen che, thi dau moi la chuyen che? 
Nguoi nguoi deu duoc tu do song theo minh, thi cai "phai" cua moi nguoi deu duoc xem la 
"phai" ca, va cai "dep" cua moi nguoi cung deu duoc xem la "dep" ca. Vay thi moi vat dudi 
troi khong con vat nao tu no khong tot dep; moi y kien dudi trdi khong co y kien nao la khong 

ngang bang nghra la binh dang nhu nhau tat ca. 

*** 

Thi Phi, Thien ac la mot van de tuong doi. Nhung, tien them mot buoc sau hon, ta lai thay: thi 



cung do phi ma co, phi cung do thi ma sinh, cung nhu thien do ac ma sinh, ac do thien ma co. 

Trang tu noi: "(•••) do do day ma ra; day do do ma co(. . .)" 

"Do" do "day" ma ra, "day" nhan "do" ma co, do la muon noi den cai luat doi dai, ma cung 

vua muon noi den cai luat "vat cung tac bien" va he bien thi bien thanh doi dich cua no. 

Va len den mot tang cao hon nua, ta se thay thi phi chang nhung la mot le doi dai, bo khuyet 

cho nhau "nhat am nhat duong chi vi Dao", ma thi tuc la phi, phi tuc la thi: ca hai la dong 

nhat. Boi vay, Trang tu moi noi: "vat, khong vat nao la khong phai "day", khong vat nao la 

khong phai "do"(. . .) "Do" cung la "day" ma "day" cung la "do". 

"Do" va "day" da la mot, thi "do" va "day" rieng ra, dau co that. Hay noi mot each khac: cai 

phai cua "day" la cai quay cua "do", ma 'do" la 'day', "day" la "do" thi chung quy phai va 

quay la mot vay. 

"Day" va 'do" da vo dinh, thi phai va quay cung vo dinh, vay ma nguoi doi lai muon dinh 

phai quay nen moi co su tranh bien va gianh phan phai cho minh. Nhung, tranh bien nhau co 

du de ro dang dau la phai, dau la quay chang? 

Thien Te- Vat- Luan noi: "Ta voi nguoi cung tranh bien: nguoi khong duoc ta, ta khong thang 

duoc nguoi, vay nguoi han la da phai, ma ta han la da quay chua? Neu ta thang duoc nguoi; 

nguoi khong thang duoc ta, vay ta han la da phai, ma nguoi han da la quay chua? Hay la, khi 

thi phai, khi thi quay hay sao? Hay la, ca hai chung ta deu phai ca, hoac cung quay ca hay 

sao? Ta va nguoi khong the biet duoc nhau, thi nguoi nguoi danh phai chiu toi tarn roi! Ta 

phai nho ai chinh lai viec ay? Nho ke dong voi nguoi thi lam sao chinh duoc viec do! Cay 

nguoi khac voi ta va nguoi, de chinh lai viec do u? No da khac voi ta va khac voi nguoi, thi 

lam sao chinh lai duoc viec do? Cay nguoi dong voi ta va dong voi nguoi thi lam sao chinh 

duoc viec do? Vay thi ta voi nguoi cung voi nguoi do deu khong the biet nhau duoc, sao phai 

cho nguoi do lam gi?" 

Vay thi, tuy tranh bien ma phai quay cung khong sao dinh dang. La vi con thay co "do", co 

"day". Khi ma long minh khong con chia phan Nhi Nga, song duoc trong cai Song- mot cua 

Dao roi, thi "do" la "day", "day" la "do", van de phai quay, thien ac tu nhien theo do cung tieu 

tan nhu mot con mong mi. Mot nha Dao hoc an do ngay nay, J. KRISNAMURTI, noi rat chi 

ly: "khong co van de nao de giai quyet ca: chi co cai Song de song ma thoi". 



:;:*. : 



"Phai" la mot le vo cung; quay cung la mot le vo cung" nghia la pahi va quay nhu tren cai 

vong tron, khong biet dau la khoi diem. Ta can dung o trung tarn cua cai vong ay (hoan trung) 

de chiu day chiu do. Cho trung tarn ay, goi la Dao xu (cot cua banh xe Dao). "Thanh nhan vi 

cho hoa ma noi thi noi phi, roi dung yen noi Thien Quan, do goi la luong hanh". Luong hanh 

la "khong roi khoi thi phi, ma lai vuot thoat khoi thi phi". 

Thanh nhan doi voi thi phi co hai each cu xu: 

doi voi minh, thi tarn tri hop nhat, chi thay co cai song mot ma khong thay co thi phi. 

doi voi nguoi, thi biet phai quay la hai le tuong doi nuong nhau ma co, nen cii dung yen noi 

true quan binh de ma hoa voi moi nguoi, tuc la cho ma Trang tu goi la "trieu tarn mo tu". 

*** 

Neu bao rang khong co cai phai nao la tuyet doi, tai sao Trang tu lai bai bac che do luan- ly 
cua nguoi duong thoi, ha khong phai do la tu mau thuan voi minh sao? Khong, Trang tu co 
bao gio cho rang co mot cai Phai nao la cai Phai tuyet doi de lam mau cho muc cho thien ha 
loai nguoi dau! So di co bai bac chang la bai bac cai 6c thien tu doc doan cho rang chi co 
minh la Phai ma thien ha deu Quay, va cai Phai hay cai Quay chi la mot trang thai tarn thoi va 
luon luon phan bien bat thuong, khong the dung tu tarn dem cai quan niem ve dieu Phai le 
Quay cua rieng minh ma bat ca thay thien ha cung theo, va nhan do lam cho con nguoi thong 
kho. Vay chii cai ma thien ha thuong goi la lo doi chang phai la lo dem thien ha vao cung mot 
khuon tu tuong nhu minh sao? Va "he dong voi ta, cho ta la Phai, khong dong voi ta, cho ta la 
Quay", hay noi mot each khac, ke nao khong cung voi ta, la nghich voi ta. Thien ha tu xua 



den nay so di ma loan, la vi phan nhieu ai ai cung tuong cai Phai ciia minh la tuyet doi, nghia 
la chi co minh la phai. Khong the, thi sao co nhung che do doc tai da lam dieu linh thong kho 

thienha! 

*** 

B. Sir binh dang giua Song va Chet 

Binh dang giua thi phi. . . dua ta den mot van de khong kem quan trong hon: van de Song 

Chet. 

Theo Trang tir thi trong Troi Dat, chi co mot cai Song ma thoi, trie la cai Song khong sinh, 

khong tir. Con noi den song va chet, nhung hinh thiic doi dai nhau ma co, thi do chi la mot sir 

"thanh hoai" ciia mot trang thai trong cuoc dai hoa ciia Troi Dat thoi. Song chet, theo Trang tir 

la mot "cot", mot "mo", mot "di" mot "lai" noi tiep nhau nhu tren cai "vong iron". 

Cai Song cua ta doi vdi hinh the ta, nhu "lira doi vdi ciii". Cai Song ay nhu lira truyen tir bo 

ciii nay sang bo cui kia: "Hoa truyen mai ma khong tat, cai mang quan mai ma khong tuyet". 

Chet, la tu hinh thiic ciia mot vat hien tai nay chuyen qua hinh thiic khac. Neu tu canh nay doi 

qua canh khac ma sanh long lo so, thi co khac nao canh cua "nang Le Co, con ciia mot vi 

phong nhan xii Ngai, ga cho Vua nude Tan. Khi ve nha chong, luy udt dam bau. Kip khi den 

hoang cung, cung vua dong sang, nem mui so hoan, roi lai hoi nan giot le ngay xua" ma 

khong chiu tro ve que cu. Nhu ta cho hinh thiic hien day la dang vui mung, thi sau khi chet, 

cho ta se dang hinh thiic mdi, sao lai biet khong co cho dang vui mung nhu bay gio, hoac hon 

bay gio? 

Thien Dai Tong Su cung co noi: "Hoi vi thiiy trong vo cue, theo Van hoa ma co no ra. Vay, 

vui voi do, nhan rieng no (ma khong nhan cai khac) co phai le khong?" Giai thich doan van 

tren day, Quach Tir Huyen viet: "Trong muon van hinh thiic ciia van vat, hinh thiic ciia nguoi 

la mot. Gap duoc hinh thiic ay, chua dii rieng vui voi no ma thoi sao? Trong vo cue, cho "gap 

moi" ciia van vat deu nhu con nguoi, ha chi rieng co con nguoi la biet vui voi cai hinh thiic ay 

ma thoi; con bao nhieu vat khac deu khong biet vui voi hinh thiic ciia chiing nhu con nguoi 

sao?" Goc ta dau phai la nguoi ma bien thanh con nguoi. Hoa lam nguoi, do la ta da mat cai 

cho cu kia, nhung tuy mat cai cu ma lai vui, la vui cho "gap moi" khac nay day. Ma cuoc bien 

hoa thi vo cung, thi cho "gap moi" cung se vo tan. 

Chiing ta di tren con duong bien hoa vo cung ciia Troi Dat, co khac nao mot hr khach: canh 

nao cung moi, cho nao cung dep. Nhung dirng de cho canh nao troi buoc minh, vi tren doi 

khong con biet bao canh la bat ngo vui dep khac dang cho doi ta. 

Trang tir cung co noi: "Gia nhu canh tay trai toi hoa lam con ga, thi toi nhan do ma gay canh. 

Gia nhu canh tay phai toi hoa lam hon dan, thi toi nhan do ma kiem chim quay. Gia nhu cai 

xuong cung ciia toi hoa thanh banh xe, lay cai than hon toi lam con ngua thi toi se nhan do ma 

coi len, ha con phai doi xe ngua nao nua. Va dac la thoi, that la thuan. An thoi xir thuan thi 

buon vui lam sao vao dang coi long". 

Tom lai, bac chin nhan ngay xua "khong ham song, khong ghet chet", ra khong vui, ve khong 

buon, than nhien ma den, than nhien ma di. . . luon luon "an thoi xir thuan" vi vay moi giai 

quyet duoc dirt khoat van de sinh tir. 

*** 

C. Ta va vat binh dang 

"Xua Trang Chau chiem bao thay minh la buom, vui phan lam budm, tu thay thich chi, khong 
con biet co Chau nua. Chot tinh giac, thi lai thay minh la Chau. Khong biet Chau chiem bao la 
buom, hay buom chiem bao la Chau? Chau va buom at phai co tanh phan khac nhau. Do goi 

la Vat hoa". 

*** 

"Khong biet Chau chiem bao la Buom, hay Buom chiem bao la Chau?" Mot cau hoi co the 
bao trum duoc ca van de "vat nga binh dang". Sir hon hop giua Ta (Trang Chau) va Vat (con 
buom) hon nhien den khong the biet dau la thuc, dau la mong. Va nhu vay, mong cung la 



thuc, thuc cung la mong, va Ta cung la Vat, Vat cung la Ta. Ta va Vat la mot. 

Ngoai su binh dang cua tho yeu, Ian nho, nen hu, ha chang phai deu do day ma ra ca hay sao? 

*** 

Ngudi ta thudng bao thien Te- Vat- Luan la mot thien tinh tham ky dieu. Nhung cho tinh 

tham nhat la d doan dau cua thien, tiic la cho ma Tu Ky giang cho Nhan thanh Tu Du ve cai y 

nghia cua "Thien lai", "dia lai", "Nhan lai". 

Nhan lai la "sao ngudi". . . Tieng sao tuy co cao thap, dai ngan khac nhau, ma tuu trung chi do 

mot hoi thoi vao ma gay nen: tuy 16 hong Ion nho gan xa ma phat ra du loai am thanh khac 

biet. Hoi thoi do (ma Tu Ky goi la gio, doi vdi Dia lai) tiic la Bao, dong co duy nhat gay 

thanh muon dieu am thanh, cung nhu van vat. 

"Hoi thoi" cua nhac cong, cung nhu "gio thoi" ma im bat, thi ca thay "sao ngudi", "sao dat" se 

cung im lang, khong con co gi ca. Cho nen "hoi thoi" hay gio thoi la cai chinh, tuy khong 

thay, nhung ma co. Trai lai, am thanh muon dieu on ao, tuy co ma ky that la khong. 

Chuong Te- Vat- Luan, chung quy la de giang ve mot chu Hoa. Sao, la nhac; Nhac, la dieu 

hoa tat ca nhung gi ma rieng ra, khong the hoa nhau ma lai con chong doi nhau la khac, nhu 

nhiing giong cao giong thap, tieng tho tieng trong, tieng dai tieng ngan. . . Su vat tuy khac 

nhau, chong doi nhau nhu thi phi, thien ac. . . the ma lai hoa nhau, nen mdi goi la dong nhau, 

va dat ten la Te Vat. Trang tu dung "nhan lai" de dan qua "dia lai" va nhan "dia lai" ma ban 

qua "thien lai". "Thien lai" la yeu diem cua toan thien: su dieu hoa cua tat ca moi bat dong 

mau thuan tren doi. 

Giang rong thien nay, thien Thu Thuy viet: "Hai Than noi:" Cung ech gieng khong the noi 

bien dang: no chi biet co cai hang no ma thoi. Cung con trung mua ha, khong the noi bang 

tuyet dang: no chi biet co cai mua cua no ma thoi! Cung bon khuc- si khong the noi Bao dang: 

ho bi troi buoc trong giao ly cua ho. Nay ngoi ra khoi long song, thay bien ca ma biet xau ho. 

Vay thi, noi dai- ly voi nguoi doc. 

Budi troi, nude khong dau nhieu hon bien. B6 la noi muon song chay ve, khong biet bao gio 

thoi, ma khong he day; roi nude bien lai chay vao cac song khong biet bao gio ngung, ma 

khong he voi. Xuan, Thu chang bien- doi no, ma thuy- nan no cung chang can biet den lam gi. 

Hon rach song khong biet long- so nao ke, ma ta cha rung cay do la nhieu, la vi tu sanh vdi 

Troi Bat, Am Bong, thi ta co khac nao mot vien da nho, mot goc cay gay trong day nui to! Ba 

rang la it, sao thay minh nhieu? Bon bien d trong Troi Bat phai chang cung chi la nhung hang 

nho d trong cham Ion hay sao? Trung Quoc nam trong bon bien cung chang giong hat lua d 

trong kho Ion hay sao? Van- vat, lay so muon ma noi, thi ngoi chi doc so mot ma thoi! Lay 

chin chau, noi lua thoc sinh san xe thong hanh, thi nguoi cung khong qua so mot. Vay, nguoi 

doi vdi Van- vat, khac nao mot soi long tren minh ngua. Cho lien- hiep cua Ngu- Be, cho 

tranh gianh cua Tarn- Hoang, cho lo lang cua nguoi nhan, cho nhoc nhan cua ke si, rot lai cd 

gi! Ba- Bi tu ngoi, lay do lam danh; Trong- Ni noi ra, goi do la rong. Nhiing cai ma ho cho 

rang nhieu do, thi co khac nao ngoi trudc khi thay bien." 

B6 la thien "tuong doi luan" cd le hung hon nhat tu xua den nay d Bong Phuong nay! 

Bl/ONG SINH CHU 

A. Ngd sinh da huu nhai, nhi tri da vo nhai; di hun nhai tuy vo nhai, dai di! 

Bi nhi vi tri gia, dai nhi di hi. Vi thien vo can danh, vi ac vo can hinh. Buyen doc[ii] di vi 

kinh, kha di bao than, kha di toan sinh, kha di duong than, kha di tan nien. 

BICH NGHIA: 

A. Sinh luc cua ta thi cd nan, ma su muon biet cua ta thi khong bo ben. dem cai co han (nhu 

sinh luc cua ta) de ma chay theo cai khong bo ben (nhu long ham muon cua ta) la nguy vay! 

Ba biet the, lai khong dung, cang nguy hon nua. Lam viec thien ma khong bi danh rang buoc; 

theo con duong giua ma di, thi co the giu: duoc than minh, cd the toan duoc sinh mang, cd the 

nuoi duong me cha va cd the hudng duoc het tuoi troi. 



B. Bao Dinh[iii] vi Van Hue Quan[iv] giai nguu[v] thu chi so xuc, kien chi so y, tuc chi so ly, 

tat chi so ky, hoach nhien huong nhien tau dao hao nhien, mac bat trung am, hop u Tang Lam 

chi vu, nai trung Kinh thu chi hoi. 

Van Hue Quan viet: Hi, thien tai! Ky khai chi thu ho! 

Bao Dinh thich dao doi viet: "Than chi so hao gia, Dao da. Tien ho ky hi. Thuy, than chi giai 

nguu chi thoi, so kien vo phi nguu gia, tarn nien chi hau, vi thuong kien toan nguu da. 

Phuong kim chi thoi, than di than ngo nhi bat, di muc thi, quan tri chi, nhi than due hanh, y ho 

thien ly, phe dai khuoc, dao dai khoan, nhan ky co nhien, ky kinh khang khai chi vi thuong, 

nhi huong dai qua ho. Luong bao tue canh dao, cat da toe bao, nguyet canh dao, chiet da. Kim 

than chi dao thap cuu nien hi, so giai so thien nguu hi, nhi dao nhan nhuoc tan phat u hinh. Bi 

tiet gia huu gian[vi], nhi dao nhan gia vo hau ; di vo hau nhap huu gian, khoi khoi ho ky u du 

nhan tat huu du dia hi. Thi di thap cuu nien nhi dao nhan nhuoc tan phat u hinh. Tuy nhien 

moi chi u toe, ngo kien ky nan vi, truat nhien vi gioi, thi vi chi, hanh vi tri, dong dao toi vi, 

hoach nhien, di giai, nhu tho uy dia. de dao nhi lap, vi chi tii co, vi chi tru man chi. Thien dao 

nhi tang chi." 

Van Hue Quan viet: 

"Thien tai! Ngo van Bao Dinh chi ngon, dac duong sinh yen." 

DICHNGHIA: 

B. Bao Dinh mo bo cho Van Hue Quan. 

Luc ra thit, dieu bo cua tay dong, cua vai dua, cua chin dap, cua goi cham, tieng da xuong lia 

nhau, tieng dao cao cat deu trung cung buc, hop voi dieu mua Tang Lam, voi bai nhac Kinh- 

Thu. 

Van Hue Quan noi: "Hay that! Nghe thuat den do la cung!" 

Bao Dinh buong dao, thua rang: "Cai cho ua thich cua than, la Dao. Ban so, luc ra thit mot 

con bo, cho ma than chi co thay ma thoi, la con bo. Ve sau ba nam, than khong con thay con 

bo niia. Bay gio, than khong dung con mat de nhin, ma dung cai than de xem: ngu quan dung 

lai, ma than thi muon di, nuong theo thien ly. Tach cac gan Ion, lua cac khop Ion, nhan cho co 

nien cua no ma cat. Bap thit con khong xat qua, huong chi la khop xuong to. Nguoi bep 

thuong moi thang thay dao mot Ian, vi ho chat. Nay con dao cua than da dung muoi chin nam; 

so bo da mo co tren nghin con, vay ma dao nhu moi mai xong. Cac khop xuong kia co ke ho 

ma luoi dao nay thi mong. Lay cai be mong cua con dao ma dua vao cho ke, thi rong co thua. 

Vi vay ma luoi dao da dung muoi chin nam nay van con sac nhu moi mai. Tuy vay, moi khi 

gap nhung cho gan xuong sat nhau qua cam thay kho lam, thi than phai nhin ky, hanh dong 

cham lai; con dao cu dong mot each rat nhe nhang, the ma thit lai diit va roi xuong nhu bun 

roi xuong dat. Bay gio than cam dao dung yen, nganh nhin bon phia, dac y vi duoc con dao 

tot, roi dem cat no di. . . " 

Van Hue Quan noi: "Hay biet chung nao ! Ta nghe loi noi cua Bao Dinh ma hieu duoc cai dao 

duong sinh!" 

*** 

C. Cong Van Hien kien Hun Su[vii] nhi kinh viet: "Thi ha nhan da? 6 ho gioi[viii] da? Thien 
du, ky nhan du?" 

Viet: "Thien da, phi nhan da. Thien chi sinh thi su doc da. Nhan chi mao huu du[ix] da; di thi 

tri ky thien da, phi nhan da." 

Trach tri thap bo nhat trac bach bo nhat am; bat ky sue ho phan[x] trung, than tuy vuong[xi], 

bat thien da. 

DICH NGHIA: 

C. Cong Van Hien thay vi quan Huu Su ma kinh ngac! 

ay la ai do vay? Tai sao ma lai chi con co mot chan? Troi lam ra the chang? Hay nguoi lam ra 

the chang? 

Huu Su dap: 



Do trdi day, khong phai do nguoi dau. Troi sinh ta, bat ta phai mot chan. Hinh dung cua con 
nguoi thi phai co hai chan cung di moi duoc. Vi vay, moi biet rang, do la do troi, chii khong 
phai do nguoi lam ra. 
Con tri o trong cham, muoi buoc di, mot Ian mo, tram buoc di, mot Ian uong, nhung nao co 

mong duoc nuoi duong o trong long. Than thai tuy khoe, nhung lai dau co ua viec ay. 

*** 

D. Lao Dam hi. Tan That dieu chi, tarn hao nhi xuat. 

De tu viet: Phi Phu tu chi huu da? 

Viet: Nhien. 

Nhien tac dieu yen nhuoc thii kha ho? 

Viet: Nhien Thiiy da ngo di vi ky nhon da, nhi kim phi da. Huong ngo nhap nhi dieu yen, huu 

lao gia khoc chi nhu khoc ky tu, thieu gia khoc chi nhu khoc ky mau. Bi ky so di hoi chi, tat 

huu bat ky ngon nhi ngon, bat ky khoc nhi khoc gia, thi don thien boi tinh[xii] vong ky so tho, 

co gia vi chi don thien cho hinh. Thich lai[xiii], phu tu thoi da. Thich khii, phu tu thuan da. 

An thoi nhi xii thuan, ai lac bat nang nhap gia. 

Co gia, vi thi De[xiv] chi huyen giai[xv]. 

Chi cung u vi tan, hoa truyen da, bat tri ky tan[xvi] da. 

DiCH NGHiA: 

D. Lao Dam chet, Tan That den dieu, khoc gao ba tieng roi buoc ra. 

Hoc tro hoi: khong phai ban cua thay sao? 

Phai. 

Vay thi, dieu nhu vay coi duoc khong? 

Duoc chii! Trudc kia, do la ban ta that; nay thi khong phai vay nua. Luc nay ta vao dieu, thay 

co nguoi gia khoc nhu khoc con, co nguoi tre khoc nhu khoc me. Cai cho hop lai do (cai xac 

cua ong ta), co cau ai noi den ma noi, co cau ai khoc no ma khoc. The la da tron troi, them 

tinh, quen cho minh tho lanh. Nguoi xua goi do la hinh phat cua su tron troi. Vui ma den, la 

phu tu an thoi; vui ma di, la phu tu xu thuan. An thoi xu thuan, thi buon vui khong sao xam 

nhap coi long. Nguoi xua cho rang do la thao ma cai soi day ma Tao Hoa da cot ta vao coi 

song. Thi cung nhu viec lua vao cui, lua truyen mai khong biet den dau la cung. 

TONG B INH 

o thien Te- Vat, Trang tu cho rang "sinh tu" la mot. Vay sao con quy cai song ma duong no? 
Hoi the la hoi sai. Khong ham song, khong so chet, xem tu nhu sinh, sinh nhu hi, va sinh tu la 
mot, do la cai Dao cua Te Vat. Nhung o canh nao phai biet vui vdi canh ay[xvii]. Dang song 
ma khong lo duong no, de phai tat benh dau kho, khong biet thuan theo tu nhien cua no ma 
duong no, thi con dau goi la vui voi do! Khong duong no de cho no dau kho, nhu vay la cau 
cai chet hay sao? Co biet bao ke qua dau kho, di cau cai chet de thoat kho cua canh song day 
tat benh, do chang phai la coi cai chet la quy sao? Nhu vay dau con phai la cai Dao cua Te- 

Vat niia! 

*** 

A. Nhung nguyen nhan lam cho ta thuong sinh rat nhieu, nhung khong co chi nguy hiem bang 

"tham vong". Su deo bong tham muon chay theo ngoai vat, cung nhu chay theo cai hieu biet 

cua cai hoc true vat, deo duoi theo nhung vat bat thuong va mong ao, la noi mx tu khong bo 

ben lam mon moi sinh luc con nguoi khong sao cuu duoc. 

Boi vay, o dau thien Duong Sinh, Trang tu noi: "Sinh luc cua ta thi co han, ma su muon biet 

cua ta thi khong bo ben. dem cai co han (nhu sinh luc cua ta) de ma chay theo cai khong bo 

ben (nhu long ham muon cua ta) la nguy vay! Da biet the, lai khong dung, cang nguy hon 

nua". 

Tien them buoc nua, ong noi: "Lam viec thien ma khong bi danh rang buoc; theo con duong 

giua ma di, thi co the giu duoc than minh, co the toan duoc sinh mang, co the nuoi duong me 



cha va co the hudng duoc het tuoi trdi". 

a thien Bien Mau co doan giai rat ro cai y nghia cua tren day: "Ba Di vi danh ma chet a nui 
Thu Duong, con Dao Chich thi vi loi ma chet a go Dong Lang. Hai nguoi ay, tuy cai cho theo 
ma chet khdng giong nhau, nhung deu lam tan hai cai Song, thuong ton cai Tinh minh ca. 
Chac gi Ba Di la phai, ma Dao Chich la quay? Nguoi trong thien ha deu chet theo nhu the ca. 
Neu ma cai minh chet theo la Nhan, la Nghia, thi tuc goi la cai chet cua nguoi quan tu. Neu 
cai minh chet theo la tien bac, thi tuc goi la cai chet cua tieu nhan. Cai cho ma minh chet theo 
chi co mot, vay ma cung quan tu tieu nhan u? Den nhu viec tan cai song, ton cai tinh, thi Dao 
Chich cung nhu Ba Di, dau co khac nhau cho nao ! " 

Nguoi dat Dao, khong thien ve le Phai hay le Quay, hoac noi cho dung hon, da vuot len tren 
Phai Quay va da "thuan theo con duong giua" (duyen doc di vi kinh) nghia la gin giijr Quan 
binh, nen khong thien han ben nao den phai "chet vi mot cai gi ca" du la cho le Phai hay le 
Quay nao. Dao la Quan binh, bao gid cung d tren thien ac, cho nen nguoi dat Dao biet rang 
thien ac nuong nhau ma co, trong thien co an cai ac, trong ac co an cai thien, cho nen khong 
vi dieu Phai le Quay nao ca, ma phai rang buoc minh va lo au den phai thuong sinh vi no ca. 
Nghia la nguoi dat Dao la ke hoan toan tu do, khong con no le bat cii mot bang gia tri ve dieu 
Phai le Quay cua mot thu luan- ly tinh nao nua ca, co cung nhu kim. 



*** 



B. "Luoi dao" cua Bao Dinh di giua xuong thit ma khong cham gan xuong nen dang lau dai 
ma khong mon me. Dao duong sinh cua nguoi cung mot the: cii hoat dong trong cho hu 
khong, thuan vdi le tu nhien, thi vat khong thuong ton duoc. 

Long "ham muon" cua ta ve nhiing vat ngoai ta, khac nao nhu "gan xuong", con sinh luc cua 
ta khac nao nhu "luoi dao". He con long tham muon, deo bong theo nhung vat ngoai minh, 
tuc la "nhung vat khong rung minh ..." thi mdi co lo so: lo duoc, so mat. Dae that, doanh hu, 
thi phi, vinh nhuc. . . deu la nhung co de lam nao loan tinh than, thuong ton sinh mang. Tranh 
dau vdi nhung dieu khong the tranh duoc, nhu thi phi, vinh nhuc, vdi nhung le Doanh Hu Dae 
That trong ddi, thi tranh at phai that, do la dem luoi dao ben ma cham vao "gan xuong", thi 
dao mon luoi me. Vi vay ma Lao tu mdi de xuong thuyet "bat tranh": "Vi ta khong tranh nen 
thien ha khong ai tranh noi vdi ta" 

Tranh vdi nhau, la vi con cung nhan mot bang gia tri nhu nhau, chii doi vdi ke da vuot len 
tren thi phi thien ac. . . thi con di tranh vdi ho Phai Quay lam gi duoc nua. Co ai lai di tranh 
gianh phu quy vdi ke da xem thuong phu quy? Cho nen mdi noi: "Vi ta khong tranh, nen 
thien ha khong ai tranh noi vdi ta". 



*** 



D. Lai con mot nguyen nhan nua lam cho con nguoi thanh mot con vat dau kho nhat tren ddi, 

la long "ham song, so chet". Long "ham song" va "so chet" ma khong con, thi tinh than ta mdi 

khong nao loan. Tinh than ma khong nao loan, thi benh hoan do dau ma sinh ra? 

"Lao Dam chet, Tan That den dieu, khoc gao ba tieng roi buoc ra. 

Hoc tro hoi: khong phai ban cua thay sao? 

Phai. 

Vay thi, dieu nhu vay coi duoc khong? 

Duoc chii! Trudc kia, do la ban ta that; nay thi khong phai vay nua. Luc nay ta vao dieu, thay 

co nguoi gia khoc nhu khoc con, co nguoi tre khoc nhu khoc me. Cai cho hop lai do (cai xac 

cua ong ta), co cau ai noi den ma noi, co cau ai khoc no ma khoc. The la da tron trdi, them 

tinh, quen cho minh tho lanh. Nguoi xua goi do la hinh phat cua su tron trdi. Vui ma den, la 

phu tu an thdi; vui ma di, la phu tu xu thuan. An thdi xu thuan, thi buon vui khong sao xam 

nhap coi long. Nguoi xua cho rang do la thao mo cai soi day ma Tao H6a da cot ta vao coi 

song. Thi cung nhu viec lua vao cui, lua truyen mai khong biet den dau la cung." 

Dung lua ma nhen cui, cui tan ma tudng la lua tan, do la cho thay cua thuong nhan. That ra, 

cui co tan, ma lua thi vd tan, truyen mai tu bo cui nay sang bo cui khac, khong khac nao cai 



Song ciia ta truyen tu hinh the nay qua hinh the kia. 



*** 



Duong sinh co hai phuong dien! Duong cai song "co song co chet" (than the) va duong cai 
song "khong song khong chet"(chan tinh). Tren day, la ban ve cai Dao duong cai song "co 
song co chet". Den khi ban den cai song "khong song khong chet", Trang tu ket luan bang cai 
ti du "cui va lua" nhu vay: "khi lua chay het bo cui nay, thi truyen sang qua bo cui 
khac. . .khong bao gio tat". Cai song "khong song khong chet" nhu lua, khong bao gio cung. 
Hay gin giu no, va dung bao gio de no vi tu tarn tu due ma deo bong tham muon nhung cai 

ngoai phan minh ma ma tat di. 

*** 

Duong sinh ciing phai vua lo trong, vua lo ngoai, khong nen thai qua hay bat cap. 

Thien Dat sinh giai ve cai Dao duong sinh vua ben trong ben ngoai nay rat rd: "Dien Khai Chi 

yet kien Chau Uy Cong. Uy cong ndi: Ta co nghe thay cua khanh la Chuc Than co duoc cai 

Dao song. Khanh cung Chuc Than d chung vdi nhau, vay khanh co nghe noi ve Dao ay 

khong? 

Dien Khai Chi noi: Toi la diia quet nha, lam gi nghe dang! 

Uy cong noi: Dien tu cho khiem nhuong. Qua nhan muon nghe dieu do. 

Dien Khai Chi noi: Nghe thay toi noi: ngudi kheo duong sinh gidng nhu ngudi chan chien. 

Thay con nao le bay, thi quit no (cho no trd ve vdi bay)." 

Uy cong noi: Nghia la sao? 

Dien Khai Chi noi: Tai nude Lo, cd ten Don Bao d trong non, uong nude sudi, khong cung 

ngudi cong loi. da bay muoi tuoi ma nhan sac con nhu diia con nit. Riii bi cop bat an. Ciing 

cd ten Truong Nghi, khong cua cao nha rdng nao ma y khong chay den (de cau than), duoc 

bdn muoi tuoi, bi benh noi thiet ma chet. Bao, thi duong phan trong ma cop an phan ngoai; 

Nghi, thi duong phan ngoai ma bi benh giet phan trong. Hai ngudi do deu khong biet quit con 

chimle bay." 

Trong va ngoai, la hai dieu khong the lia nhau. Vat chat, tinh than, doi vdi Trang tu, khong 

phai chi anh huong Ian nhau rat mat thiet ma thoi, hon nua, ca hai la mot. De cho lia nhau, la 

sai vdi tu nhien, khong khac nao con chien lac bay. Danh cho no trd ve, la hop lai hai le 

"trong" va "ngoai": dao duong sinh den do mdi la day du va toan hao. 

*** 

Den nhu cai hai ve sinh luc do su sac due an uong ma gay nen, ngudi duong sinh ciing khong 
nen khong de y: "Gap noi tu dia, anh em cha con con biet lo so, ran bao nhau dung budc vao. 
Con nhu tren chan chieu, giiia cuoc uong an, ciing la noi tu dia, sao khong may ke biet lo so, 
khong biet ran ma nhu nhau, lai con mao hiem Ian minh vao, thi la qua roi!" (Dat Sinh) 
Nhat la dung de ke khac loi dung long hao danh ciia minh de bat minh phung su cho tu due 
ho: Trang tu, ciing trong thien Dat sinh, cd noi: "Mot vi quan lanh viec te tu, noi vdi heo: Sao 
bay ghet chet? Ta nuoi bay tron ba thang. Vi bay ma ta phai giu ba ngay chay, muoi ngay 
gidi. Luc te, ta de bay tren chieu trang, tren mam cham. Bay con phan nan noi gi nua? Oi! 
Neu vi quan ay, that tinh nudi heo (vi no), sao khong de cho no tu do an tarn cam, sao ciing 
duoc. Vi quan ay thich song theo ao mao, chet cd quan quach, va cho vay la vinh, rdi lai 
tudng cho heo ciing nhu the!" 

Ngudi ta noi: "nudi quan ngan thud, nhd cd mot khi". . .Va chi mot khi thdi, nhung cd khi lai 
phai thuong sinh tinh mang la thudng. . . "Trang tu cau tren song Bdc. So vuong sai hai quan 
dai phu dem le vat mdi dng ra lam quan. Trang tu cam can cau khong nhuc nhich ciing khong 
them nhin lai, ndi: "Toi nghe vua So cd con than quy, chet da ba nghin nam. Vua So quy no 
va cat tren mieu duong. Con qui ay, chiu chet de luu lai cai xuong ciia minh cho ngudi ta thd, 
hay chiu tha song ma keo le cai dudi ciia minh trong bun?"Hai vi dai phu ndi:" Tha song le cai 
dudi trong biin con hon. "Trang tu ndi:" Thdi, ve di. Ta day ciing chiu keo le cai dudi ciia minh 
trong bun."(Thu Thiiy) 



Nguoi theo Dao Duong Sinh co dau lai lao dau vao vong "can dai ao mao", "ca chau chim 
long" de phai bi chat chan, lai con ngoan co nguy bien cho la so Troi[xviii] ! "Con tri o trong 
cham, muoi buoc di mot Ian mo, tram buoc di mot Ian uong, nhung nao co mong duoc nuoi 
duong o trong long. . ." du do la mot cai long son son thep vang. . . 



Tri: & day co nghia la su hiiu biit theo nhi- nguyin; nhdn do mod co su lo du, nghi ngai, do 

long deo bong tham muon chay theo ngoqi vat cung nhu chay theo cdi hoc true vat. Lao tu 

bdo: "Vi hoc nhdt ich" . 

Theo Trang- tu, & thien Ti- Vat- Ludn, thi khong co gi la that Phai, that Quay, that thien, that 

dc mot each tuyit doi. Co cdi thien khong nen lam, co cdi dc can phai lam, de lap lai the qudn 

binh. Nhung lam viec thien khong nen vi danh (tire la vi nga), lam viec dc khong nen vi no ma 

luy than: ca hai diu lam thuong sinh ca. 

fiij Duyin doc. Duyin co nghia la thudn; doc la giwa. Muon giu dwac Dao dwang sinh, can 

an a muc thu&c, dung co cdi gi thai qua. No qua, doi qua khong nen; vui qua, buon qua cung 

khong nen. 

Neu lam viec thien (dm chi ede viec Phai, viec lanh) thi coi chimg, dung de sa vao cdi bay 

cua tarn long hieu danh; con lam viec chang phai (sai v&iphep nu&c, sai vol ludn- ly dao due 

cua xa hoi minh dang song) thi phai phong ngu&i trong xa hoi trimg phqt len an. Trdnh hai le 

cue doan ay, ma ditng den trung dao co le se giu duac minh, co the toan duac sinh mqng... 

hu&ng duac het tuoi trai. 

Lam sai v&iphep nu&c de den bi xa hoi tru luc, danh rang, do la khong biet each phbng hoqn 

cho ban than, nhung lam viec thien, lam viec phai de duac ten tuoi vang lung trong thien ha, 

cung chua phai la biet each phbng hoqn nua. B&i vdy, & thien Nhdn Gian The sdeh Trang- tu 

cung co cdu: "cay tren nui, tu no la cuu dich cua no... cay que an duac, nen bi don. Cay son 

dung duac, nen bi chat. " Con ngu&i ma co tdi vd de cho ngu&i ngu&i deu biet minh la co tdi, 

thi se nhu cay son, cay que... bi chat, bi don. "ngu&i ta deu biet cdi lai cua huu dung, ma 

khong biet cdi lai cua vd dung. " 

[Hi] Bdo: la ngu&i dau bep. & day lay nghe lam ho. 

Dinh: la ten cua ngu&i dau bep. (theo Chu Que Dieu dan Thich Van) 

[iv] Van Hue Qudn: tire la Luang Hue Vuang. 

[v] Nguu: la bo. (Ta thu&ng nhdn lam chu nay la trdu. Con trdu goi la thuy nguu). 

[vi] & day, doc la Gian: hai chu nay co van ditng Ian nhau. 

[vii] Huu Su: mot tu&c quan. 

[viii] Gi&i: mot chan. Ngu&i mot chan. 

[ix] Huu du: hai chan cung di. 

[x] Ky: cdu mong 

Phdn: cdi long. 

[xi] doc la vuang. 

[xii] Boi tinh: Tinh, la tinh cam vui buon (vui duac, buon mat) cua thu&ng nhdn chua huyen 

dong con ngu&i tqo vat. 

[xiii] Thich lai la chi ve cdi song; thich khu la chi ve cdi chet. 

[xiv] Chu de la dm chi Tqo hoa, tu nhien (khong phai la Thuong de theo quan niem Than 

quyen). 

[xv] Huyen gidi: Huyen, la cot lai; gidi, la m& ra. Ngu&i Phdp goi la Association vd 

Dissociation.. 

& thien Dai Tong Su cung co noi: "Dae gid th&i da, that gid thudn da ; an th&i nhi xu thudn, 

ai lac bat ndng nhdp da, thu co chi s& vi Huyen gidi da. " B&i vdy, cho ma Trang- tu goi la 

Huyen gidi, la dm chi cdnh gi&i ma Song Chit bang nhau, quen ca su ddc that. 

[xvi] Cung, tire la hit, dm chi cui. Cui la than thi ; lira, la tinh than. Cui tuy co cho tan, cho 



ciing, nhung het bo nay den bo kia (vo tan), thi lira truyen tie bo cui nay sang bo cui kia cung 

vo day. a day ta thdy chu truong cua Trang- tu la tinh than va vat chat deu nwcmg nhau ma 

co, deu la mot, va sinh tu cung la mot. 

fxviij Day la cho ma cdi hoc Lao Trang s& di co khdc v&i cdi hoc cua nhd Phdt tieu thua 

"xem d&i la be kho ", 'sinh, lao, benh, tu, kho ", nhin cuoc d&i hien tai deu phu mot mdu den 

toi... Trang- tu thi khdc: "Trang- Chdu chiem bao thdy minh lam bu&m, vuiphdn lam bu&m, 

tu thich chi, khong con biet co Chdu nua . . . "chu khong "dung nui nay trong nui no ", dang 

song, lai lo cdu den cdi song sau khi chet. 

[xviii] Nguy bien nhu quan chu te nguy bien v&i dam heo te da ke tren day vdy. 

NAM HOA KINH - TE- VAT- LUAN : 

N0I- THIEN 

TE- VAT- LUAN 

A. Nam- Quach Tu- Ky an ky nhi toa, nguong thien nhi hu[ii], thap yen[iii] tir tang ky 
ngau[iv]. 

Nhan- Thanh Tu - - Du[v] lap thi ho tien, viet: "Ha cu ho? Hinh co kha six nhu khao moc, nhi 

tarn co kha su nhu tu khoi ho? Kim chi an ky gia, phi tich chi an ky gia da". 

Tu- Ky viet:" Yen, bat diec thien ho, nhu[vi] van chi da. Kim gia ngo tang nga. Nhu tri chi 

ho. Nhu[vii] van nhan[viii] lai nhi vi van dia lai, nhu van dia lai, nhi vi van thien lai phit? 

Tu Du viet: Cam van ky phuong. 

Tu Ky viet: Phu dai khoi ai khi, ky danh vi phong. Thi duy vo tac. Tac, tac van khieu no ngac, 

nhi doc bat van chi lieu lieu ho. Son lam chi uy giai, dai moc bach vi chi khieu huyet, to ti, to 

khau, to nhi, to ke, to quyen, to cuu; to oa gia, to 6 gia, kich gia, hao gia, sat gia, hap gia, kieu 

gia, hao gia, yeu gia, giao gia. 

Tien gia xudng vu, 

Nhi tuy gia xuong ngu. 

Lanh phong tac tieu hoa, 

Phieu phong tac dai hoa, 

Le phong te tac ching khieu vi hu. Nhu doc bat kien chi dieu dieu chi dieu dieu ho? 

Tu Du viet: Dia lai tac chung khieu thi di. Nhon lai tac ti true thi di. Cam van thien lai? 

B. Tu- Ky viet: Phu xuy van bat dong, nhi su ky tu ky da, ham ky tu thu, no gia, ky thuy da? 
Dai tri han han. 

Tieu tri nhan nhan[ix] 

Dai ngon viem viem, 

Tieu ngon chiem chiem[x] 

Ky mi da, hon giao. 

Ky giac da, hinh khai[xi]. 

Du tiep vi cau, 

Nhat di tarn dau[xii], 

Man[xiii] gia, giao[xiv] gia, mat[xv] gia. 

Tieu khung chuy chuy. 

Dai khung man man[xvi]. 

Ky phat nhuoc co quat, ky tu thi phi chi vi da. Ky luu nhu tro minh, ki thu thang chi vi da. Ky 

sat nhu thu dong, di ngon ky nhat tieu da; ky nich chi so vi chi, bat kha su phuc chi da; ky 

yem da nhu giam, di ngon ky lao dat da. Can tu chi tarn, mac su phuc duong da. Hi no ai lac 

lu than bien nhiet dieu dat khai thai[xvii] Nhac xuat hu chung thanh khuan. Nhat da tuong dai 

ho tien nhi mac tri ki so manh. Di ho! Di ho! Dan mo dac thu ky so do di sinh ho! Phi bi vo 

nga. Phi nga vo so thu thi diec can hi. Nhi bat tri ky so vi su. Nhuoc huu chan te nhi dac bat 

dac ky tram kha hanh di tin nhi bat kien ky hinh. Huu tinh nhi vo hinh. Bach hai cuu khieu luc 

tang, cai nhi ton yen. Ngo thuy du vi than? Nhu giai thuyet chi ho? Ky huu tu yen. Nhu thi 

giai huu vi than thiep ho? Ky than thiep bat tuc di tuong tri ho? Ky dai tuong vi quan than ho? 



Ky huu chan quan ton yen? Nhu cau dac ky tinh du bat dac, vo uch ton ho ky chon. Nhat thu 
ky thanh hinh, bat vong di dai tan, du vat tuong nhan tuong my, ky hanh tan nhu tri, nhi mac 
chi nang chi. Bat diec bi ho? Chung than dich dich nhi bat kien ky thanh cong, niet nhien bi 
dich nhi bat tri ky so quy, kha bat ai da? Nhan vi chi bat tu he ich, ky hinh hoa, ky tarn du chi 
nhien, kha bat vi dai ai ho? Nhan chi sinh da, co nhuoc thi mang ho. Ky nga doc mang, nhi 
nhan diec huu bat mang gia ho? Phu tuy ky thanh tarn nhi su chi, thuy doc tha vo su ho? He 
tat tri dai, nhi tarn tu thu gia huu chi. Ngu gia du huu yen, vi thanh ho tarn nhi huu thi phi. Thi 
kim nhat thich Viet nhi tich chi da. thi di vo huu vi huu. Vo huu vi huu, tuy huu Than Vo tha 
bat nang tri. Ngo doc tha nai ha tai! 
DICH NGHIA: 
TE- VAT- LUAN 

A. Nam Quach Tu Ky ngoi dua ghe, ngua mat ha hoi, bo pho nhu nguoi mat hon. 

Nhan Thanh Tu Du dung hau trade mat, thay vay, hoi:" Sao ma hinh hai co the khien duoc 

nhu cay kho, con long thi co the khien duoc nhu tro lanh? nay nguoi ngoi tren ghe co con 

phai la nguoi ngoi tren ghe truoc day nua khong?" 

Tu ky noi:" Yen! cau hoi cua nguoi dau phai la khong dung! ta nay da mat ban nga roi, nguoi 

co biet chang? nguoi chi nghe tieng sao cua nguoi ma chua nghe tieng sao cua dat. Nguoi chi 

nghe tieng sao cua dat ma chua nghe tieng sao cua troi." 

Tu Du noi:" Dam hoi dung phuong chi noi de cho toi hieu duoc?" 

Tu Ky noi: "Hoi tho cua dai khoi, goi la gio. No khong noi len thi thoi. No ma noi len thi 

muon 16 hong gao thet len, rieng nguoi chang nghe no ao ao do hay sao? May cho sau horn 

cua nui rung, nhung bong cua cay to tram vong, nhu mui, nhu mieng, nhu tai, nhu xa, nhu 

vanh, nhu coi, nhu ao sau, nhu vung can. . . khi thi rap nhau la loi, nat no, gam thet, khi lai bo 

giong ru ri, ni non, than tho. Tieng truoc xudng len, tieng sau hoa lai. Gio hiu hiu thi la tieu 

hoa; gio vut vut thi la dai hoa. den khi gio lang, thi cac khieu deu em. Rieng nguoi khong thay 

canh la con rung dong do hay sao?" 

Tu Du noi: "tieng sao Dat la tieng hoa cua muon khieu. Tieng sao cua nguoi la tieng hoa cua 

ong true. Dam xin hoi the nao la tieng sao cua Troi?" 

B. Tu Ky noi: "Kia nhu gio thoi khien muon tieng khong dong nhau vang len, nhung ma lai 
khien cho no tu ngung di, hoac tu noi len, la gi day? biet mot each bao tram rong rai, do la 
hang dai tri; biet mot each chia lia vun vat, do la hang tieu tri. Loi noi tong hop thi phi; do la 
dai ngon, loi noi chi li bien- biet, do la tieu ngon. Khi ngu thi tinh than giao nhau(lam mot). 
Khi thuc, thi tinh than bi ly khai(vi chay theo su vat ben ngoai). Tiep Ian nhau, goi la" 
cau"(hop nhau lam mot); tan man ra, goi la" tarn dau"(16ng bi chia lia chong doi nhau). Long 
phai rong, sau va de dat. de dat la cai nho ma phan biet sanh, tu; de dat cai Ion la xem sanh tu 
bang nhau. Nguoi doi bay cuoc ban bia ma dinh thi phi, bay to khe uoc ma phan thang bai. 
Long nguoi man tranh dau cho thi phi Ian dau hao mon, bi giet nhu thu dong giet thao moc. 
Ho dam duoi trong viec lam do, khong lam sao cho long ho phuc nguyen lai duoc. De nen 
nhu giam nhot, nhu de nen loi noi[xviii]. Cai long gan chet, khong sao khien no nong lai 
duoc. 

Nhung ma mung gian, thuong vui, phan phuc, kinh so, phu phiem, phong tung, tinh due ma 
rong. . . deu nhu tieng nhac do cho hu khong ma phat len, nhu dam nam trong cho am udt ma 
sanh ra. Ngay va dem, tiep nhau ma hien ra truoc mat, ai biet duoc dau moi no noi dau? Oi! 
01! Mot som mot chieu, ai biet duoc tu dau ma sanh ra? 

Khong co do, khong co day.(nhung neu) khong co day thi biet lay dau lam cho can cii! Ly ay 
dau co xa xoi gi! Nhung ma khong ro ai xui nhu the? Duong nhu co dang Chan- te, nhung ma 
khong thay duoc dau vet cua Do. Dang ay co tinh ma khong co hinh. Tram xuong chin khieu, 
sau tang, rieng biet ra thi khong thanh mot than the; nen phai co cai " hiep" no lai kia moi 
thanh mot than the duoc. Than thiep rieng biet ra, khong du sue tri Ian nhau nen khong the 
thanh mot mon ho; nen phai co cai hiep no lai, moi thanh mot mon ho, quan than rieng biet ra 



thi khong thanh mot quoc gia, nen phai co cai " hiep" ca hai lai mdi thanh mot quoc gia. Ca 

ma hiep dang lam nen mot than the, mot mon ho, mot quoc gia, " cai do" khong bdt, cung 

khong them cho than the, cho mon ho, cho quoc gia, ta goi no la "Tinh". Co ke nhan cai " 

hinh" do do gay ra, khong quen cho den ngay cung tan cua no, roi dam chem nhau, hai Ian 

nhau, ma khong biet dung, chang cung dang buon sao? Co ke tron ddi lam mai ma khong thay 

thanh cong, met mdi ma khong biet dau la cho ve, cung chang dang thuong xot sao? Ngudi ta 

bao nhu the ma khong chet co ich gi khong? Hinh no hoa di, tarn no cung mot the, cung chang 

dang xot xa lam sao? 

Doi nguoi ma mit, ha phai rieng ta ma mit, con ke khac khong mo mit hay sao? Nhu biet lay 

cai tarn da thanh cua minh lam Thay, thi ai la chang co Thay? Cai tarn thanh da san co, sao 

con tim cai chi nua ma the no? ke ngu cung co no. Chua thanh duoc ma long da co chua thi 

phi, thi co khac nao horn nay sang nude Viet ma da den tu horn trade roi! Nhu vay, tuc la lay 

cai khong co lam cai co. Lay cai khong co lam cai co. Thi tuy co Than V6 cung khong biet 

duoc, rieng ta co lam the nao duoc! 

C. Phu ngon phi xuy da. Ngon gia huu ngdn[xix], ky so ngon gia, dac vi dinh da. Qua huu 

ngon da? Ky vi thuong huu ngon da? Ky di vi di u khau am[xx], diec huu bien ho? Ky vo 

bien ho? Dao 6 ho an nhi huu chan nguy? Ngon 6 ho an nhi huu thi phi[xxi]? Bao 6 ho vang 

nhi bat ton? Ngon 6 ho ton nhi bat kha[xxii]? 

Dao an u tieu thanh[xxiii]; ngon an u vinh hoa[xxiv]. Co huu Nhu Mac chi thi phi; di thi ky 

so phi, nhi phi ky so thi. Due thi ky so phi, nhi phi ky so thi, tac mac nhuoc di minh. Vat vo 

phi bi, vat vo phi thi. Tu bi tac bat kien tu tri tac tri chi. Co viet: Bi xuat u thi, thi diec nhan 

bi. Bi thi, phuang sinh chi thuyet da. Tuy nhien, phuong sinh phuong tu, phuong tu phuong 

sinh. Phuong kha phuong bat kha, phuong bat kha phuong kha. Nhan thi nhan phi, nhan phi 

nhan thi. 

Thi di Thanh nhan bat do nhi chieu chi vu thien, diec nhan thi da. thi diec bi da. Bi diec thi da. 

Bi diec nhat thi phi. Thu diec nhat thi phi. Qua tha huu bi thi ho tai? Qua tha vo bi thi ho tai? 

Bi thi, mac dac ky ngau[xxv] vi chi Dao Xu[xxvi]. Xu thuy dac ky hoan trung[xxvii], di ling 

vo cung. Thi diec nhat vo cung, phi diec nhat vo cung da. Co viet: Mac nhuoc di minh. 

Di chi du chi chi phi chi, bat nhuoc di phi chi du chi chi phi chi da. Di ma du ma chi phi ma, 

bat nhuoc di phi ma du ma chi phi ma da, van vat nhat ma da. 

Kha ho kha, bat kha ho bat kha. Dao hanh chi nhi thanh, vat vi chi nhi nhien. 6 ho nhien? 

Nhien u nhien. 6 ho bat nhien? Bat nhien u bat nhien. Vat co huu so thien, vat co hiiu so kha. 

Vo vat bat nhien, vo vat bat kha. Co vi thi cu dinh du dinh, le du Tay thi, khoi nguy quyet 

quai, Dao thong vi nhat. 

Ky phan da thanh da. Ky thanh da, huy da. Pham vat vo thanh du huy, phuc thong vi nhat. 

Duy dat gia tri thong vi nhat. Vi thi chi bat dung nhi ngu chu dung. Dung da gia, dung da; 

dung da gia, thong da; thong da gia, dac[xxviii] da. Thich dac nhi co[xxix] hi. Nhan thi 

di[xxx]. Di nhi bat tri ky nhien, vi chi Dao. Lao than minh vi nhat nhi bat tri ky dong da, vi 

chi trieu tarn. 

Ha vi trieu tarn? Viet: Thu cong phu vu[xxxi] viet: trieu tarn nhi mo[xxxii] tii. Chung thu giai 

no. Viet: nhien tac trieu tii nhi mo tarn. Chung thu giai duyet. Danh that vi khuy, nhi hi no vi 

dung, diec nhon thi da. Thi di Thanh nhan hoa chi di thi phi, nhi huu ho thien quan[xxxiii], thi 

chi vi luong hanh[xxxiv]. 

DICH NGHIA: 

C. Ldi, khong phai nhu gio thoi: Ldi phai co noi len mot cai gi. Neu cho noi cua no ma chua 

dinh, thi ldi noi ay qua da co noi khong. Hay la chua co noi gi ca? Ldi noi chua dinh ay, khac 

nao tieng chim con: chua co biet bien biet hay khong bien biet? Dao, sao dua vao chan hay 

nguy; ldi, sao dua vao thi hay phi? Dao, sao qua ma khong con; ldi, sao con ma chang noi 

duoc? Dao, an trong tieu thanh; ldi, an noi vinh hoa. Bdi vay mdi co cai phai, quay cua Nhu 

Mac. Nhu Mac thi lay Phai lam Quay, lay Quay lam Phai.(Nhung) neu muon thay duoc cai 



Phai trong cai Quay, cai Quay trong cai Phai, thi khong co gi bang dung den anh sang(ciia 
Dao). Vat, khong vat nao la khong phai" do", khong vat nao la khong phai" day"[xxxv]. Lay 
cho nhan thay cua ngudi ma thay, thi khong thay; lay cho biet cua minh ma biet, thi moi biet. 
Nen moi co noi rang:" Do", do day ma ra; " day", nhan "do" ma co. " Do day", ay la thuoc cua 
"phuong sinh". Nen moi co noi Song, noi Chet, noi Chet, noi Song, noi duoc, noi khong 
duoc, noi khong duoc, noi duoc. Nhan co Phai, nhan co Quay; nhan co Quay, nhan co 
Phai(ma cai nhau). 

Thanh nhan thi khong can cii vao Phai Quay, ma can cii vao khieu biet tu nhien cua minh de 
hieu moi vat. Va cung do"day" trade. " Day", cung la "Do", ma "Do" cung la "Day". "Do" 
cung co mot le Phai Quay cua "Do"; ma "Day" cung co mot cai le phai quay cua "Day". Qua 
co "do day" chang? Qua chang co "do day" chang? Do va Day ma khong gap cho hia doi(doi- 
dai) cua no, thi goi la Cot Dao (Dao Xu). Cot ay khdi dau noi trung tarn cua cai vong 
tron(hoan trung), va can cii vao do de ma ling doi vo cung(vdi Thi Phi). Phai, cung la mot cai 
le vo cung. Quay, cung la mot cai le vo cung[xxxvi]. Boi vay moi noi: dau bang dung lay anh 
sang cua Dao. 

Lay ngon tay ma thi du rang ngon tay khong phai la ngon tay, sao bang lay cai khong phai la 
ngon tay de ma thi du rang ngon tay khong phai la ngon tay. 

Lay con ngua ma thi du rang con ngua khong phai la con ngua, sao bang lay cai khong phai la 
con ngua de ma thi du rang con ngua khong phai la con ngua. Troi Dat khac nao ngon tay noi 
tren. Van vat khac nao con ngua noi tren. 

Duoc la duoc. Khong duoc la khong duoc. Con duong co di moi thanh duong di, vat co goi 
duoc ten moi thanh la vat. Sao la phai vay? Phai vay la vi phai vay. Sao la khong phai vay? 
Khong phai vay, la vi khong phai vay. Vat, co cho la phai vay. Vat, co cho la duoc vay. 
Khong vat nao la khong phai vay; khong vat nao la khong duoc vay. Cho nen moi co so sanh 
cong co voi cot tru, mot ngudi dan ba xau xi voi Tay Thi; khoan dai, ky bien, gian tra, quai di, 
thay deu la mot. 

Co phan" no" ra thi "no" moi "thanh". Co "thanh" thi moi co "hoai". Pham vat ma khong 
"thanh", nen khong "hoai" thi moi co the "tro ve" ma cung thong voi le Mot(cua Dao). Chi co 
bac dat Dao moi thong hieu duoc le Mot ay ma thoi: Ho ding do cai dung mao (ben ngoai) de 
hoa voi moi ngudi. "Dung", tiic la "dung"; "dung", tiic la "thong". Ma "thong", tiic la "dac" 
vay. Vui trong cho "dac" ay, it ai duoc. Nhan tdi do ma "thoi di". "Thoi di", ma cung khong 
can phai biet vi sao ma phai vay, thi goi la Dao. Lao nhoc than minh vi chap nhat (trong mot 
cai Phai hay cai Quay nao) ma khong biet trong thay deu dong nhau. Nen moi goi la "sdm 
ba". 

Sao goi la " som ba"? Co lao nuoi khi, phat khoai cho khi, noi: "Som ba, ma chieu bon!" Khi 
deu gian. Lao lai noi: "Thoi, som bon ma chieu ba"! Khi deu mung. So cho khong thay doi, 
danh va thuc khong thieu, vay ma, cai dung y cua no lai co mung co gian. Boi vay, bac Thanh 
nhan, vi su hoa binh ma phai noi den thi hay phi, roi dung yen o cot true cua "banh xe Troi" 
(Thien Quan): do goi la "luong hanh". 
D. Co chi nhan, ky tri hviu so chi[xxxvii] hi. 

O ho chi? Hiiu di vi vi thuy hiiu vat gia chi hi, tan hi, bat kha di gia hi. Ky thii di vi hiiu vat 
hi, nhi vi thuy hiiu phong[xxxviii] da. Ky thii di vi huu phong yen, nhi vi thuy huu thi phi da. 
thi phi chi chuong da, Dao chi so di khuy da. Dao chi so di khuy, au chi so di thanh[xxxix]. 
Qua tha hiiu thanh du khuy ho tai? Qua tha vo thanh du khuy ho tai? Hiiu thanh da khuy, co 
Chieu thi[xl] chi co cam da. Vo thanh du khuy, co Chieu thi chi bat co cam da. Chieu van chi 
co cam da, Su Khoang[xli] chi chi sach da, Hue tu[xlii] chi cii ngo da, tarn tii chi tri co ho? 
Giai ky thanh gia da, co tai chi mat nien. Duy ky hao chi da, di di u bi ; ky hao chi da, due di 
minh chi, bi phi so minh nhi minh chi. Co di kien bach[xliii] chi muoi chung, nhi ky tii huu di 
van chi luan chung, chung than vo thanh. Nhuoc thi nhi kha vi thanh ho? Tuy nga diec thanh 
da. Nhuoc thi nhi bat kha vi thanh ho? Vat du nga vo thanh da. thi co hoat nghi chi dieu[xliv], 



Thanh nhan chi so do da. Vi thi bat dung, nhi ngu chu dung[xlv], thu chi vi di minh[xlvi]. 

DICHNGHIA: 

D. Nguoi xua, cai biet cua ho co cho cung cue. Sao goi la cung cue? Co ke cho rang thud ban 

dau chua he co vat gi ca, do la mot chu truong cue doan cung tan, khong the con noi gi them 

duoc nua. Co ke thi cho rang da co vat roi, nhung vat ay chua rung chia phan. Lai cung co ke 

cho rang da co vat roi, nhung vat ay da lai co chia phan. Thi Phi ma bi chia phan ro ret ra roi, 

thi Dao moi co cho khuyet. Dao ma co cho "khuyet" (vi khong du) moi co tao thanh ra chu 

"ai" (de ma hoa hop lai). Qua co "khuyet" co "ai" chang? Qua khong co "khuyet", khong co 

"ai" chang? Boi thay co "khuyet" co "ai", ho Chieu moi khay cam. Khong co "khuyet" co "ai" 

thi ho Chieu khay cam lam chi? 

Co Chieu van khay cam, Su Khoang moi lap luat dinh ngu am, Hue tu moi giang am luat. 

Cho biet cua ba nguoi nay co la bao nhieu ma thien ha deu hoan nghenh cho den doi cuoi 

cung nay ma luat ay hay con thinh hanh? Cho ua thich cua ho dau co giong voi cho ua thich 

cua chung nhan. Muon dem cai cho khong sang cua minh ma soi sang cho ke khac, nen suot 

doi cam chiu toi tarn vi cau chuyen "kien bach". Ho thu dem ngon dan hay cua ho ma truyen 

day cho con ho, tron doi biet co truyen day duoc khong! Neu ma ho truyen dat duoc, thi ta 

day cung truyen day duoc. Bang ho truyen day khong dang, thi ta day cung truyen day khong 

duoc. Cho nen cho ma bac thanh nhan mong moi la duoc o trong cai anh sang map ma (cua 

cai nhin tong quat hon hop), khong dung phep tac cua ai ca, chi dung cai ly thong thuong cua 

moi nguoi de xii su voi doi. Do goi la muon lay anh sang cua nguoi vay. 

D. Kim tha huu ngon u "thu", bat tri ky da "thi" loai ho[xlvii], ky da thi bat loai ho? Loai du 

bat loai, tuong du vi loai, tac du bi vo di di hi. Tuy nhien, thinh thuong ngon chi: "huu thuy", 

da gia, "hiiu vi thuy huu thuy" da gia, "huu vi thuy hiiu phu vi thuy huu thuy", da gia, "huu 

huu" da gia, "hiiu vo", da gia, "hiiu vi thuy huu vo" da gia, "huu vi thuy hiiu phu vi thuy hiiu 

vo" da gia[xlviii]. Nga nhi huu vo hi, nhi vi tri hviu vo chi qua, thuc hiiu thuc vo da? Kim nga 

tac di hiiu vi hi, nhi vi tri ngo so vi chi, ky qua hiiu vi ho, ky qua hiiu vo vi ho? 

Thien ha mac dai u thu hao chi mat, nhi dai son vi tieu. Mac tho ho thuong tu nhi Banh to vi 

yeu. 

Thien dia da nga tinh sanh, nhi van vat du nga vi nhat. Ky di vi nhat hi, tha dac hiiu ngon ho? 

Ky di vi chi nhat hi, tha dac vo ngon ho? Nhat da ngon vi nhi, nhi du nhat vi tam[xlix]. Tu 

thu di vang, xao lich bat nang dac nhi huong ky pham ho? Co tu vo thich huu, di chi u tarn, 

nhi huong tu huu thich huu ho? Vo thich yen, nhan thi di[l]. 

Phu Dao vi thuy huu phong[li], ngon vi thuy huu thuong[lii] . Vi thi nhi huu chan[liii] da. 

thinh ngon ky chan: hiiu ta huu huu, huu luan huu nghia, hiiu phan huu bien, huu canh hiiu 

tranh, thu chi vi bat due, luc hop chi ngoai[liv]. Thanh nhan ton nhi bat luan. Luc hop chi noi, 

thanh nhan luan nhi bat nghi. Xuan thu kinh the tien vuong chi chi, thanh nhon nghi nhi bat 

bien[lv]. Co phan da gia hiiu bat phan da, bien da gia, hiiu bat bien da[lvi]. Viet: ha da? Thanh 

nhan hoai chi, chung nhan bien chi. Di tuong thi da. Co viet: bien da gia, hiiu bat kien 

da[lvii]. Phu dai Dao bat xung, dai bien bat ngon, dai nhan bat nhan, dai liem bat khiem, dai 

dung bat ky. Dao chieu nhi bat Dao[lviii], ngon bien nhi bat cap[lix], nhan thuong nhi bat 

thanh, liem thanh nhi bat tin, dung ky nhi bat thanh, ngu gia ngoan nhi co huong phuong hi. 

Co tri chi ky so, bat tri, chi hi[lx]. Thuc tri bat ngon chi bien, bat Dao chi Dao? Nhuoc huu 

nang tri, thu chi vi thien phu, chu yen nhi bat man, chudc yen nhi bat kiet, nhi bat tri ky so do 

lai, thu chi vi bao quang[lxi]. 

Co tich gia Nghieu van u Thuan viet: nga due phat Tong, Khoai, Tu Ngao; nam dien nhi bat 

thich nhien, ky ha to da? Thuan viet: Phu tarn tu gia, du ton ho, bong ngai chi gian? Nhuoc 

bat thich nhien, ha tai? Tich gia thap nhat tinh xuat, van vat giai chieu nhi huong due chi tien 

ho nhat gia ho ! 

DICH NGHIA: 

D. Vi nhu nay co nguoi hoi rang: khong ro chvi "do" co giong voi chu "day" chang; hay 



khong giong voi chu "day" chang? Giong va khong giong, hay cung la mot giong voi nhau, 

thi la ben nay khong co gi khac voi ben kia nua. Tuy vay, con co nhieu danh tu thong thuong 

ma y nghia tuong phan, ta cung cho no giong nhau duoc nua chang? Nhu nhung danh tu sau 

day: 'huu thuy", "huu vi thuy huu thuy", 'huu vi thuy huu phu vi thuy", "huu huu", 'huu vo", 

'huu vi thuy huu vo", "huu vi thuy huu phu vi thuy huu vo". Thoat trong qua ma "co" la da 

"khong" roi, nhung cung chua ro la co hay khong? Va qua co cai gi la co, co cai gi la khong 

hay chang? Nay thi ta cung da co noi roi, nhung chua biet ro dieu ta noi do qua da co noi 

khong, hay chua co noi khong? 

Dudi troi khong co gi Ion bang cong long mua thu, ma khong co gi nho bang nui Thai; khong 

co gi tho bang diia be chet yeu, ma khong co gi yeu bang 6ng Banh To. 

Troi Bat cung ta dong sinh, va van vat cung ta la mot. Da la mot roi, thi noi ra co duoc 

khong? Da goi la mot roi, thi khong noi ra co duoc khong? Mot va 161 la hai. Hai voi mot la 

ba. Tu ba tro lai mot, bac goi la xao lich con khong hieu duoc thay, huong chi la ke tarn 

thuong! Cho nen, tu cho "khong" ma sang cho "co", con phai den so ba, huong chi tu cho co 

ma sang cho co? Khong phai sang qua dau ca, chi nen theo cho co day la du. 

Va, Dao chua he co khu vuc; loi noi chua he co dinh thuc. Co cho day la Thi, thi mdi co su 

chia phan thi voi phi thanh rung khu vuc. Vay, xin ban ve khu vuc ay: co mat, co trai, co luan, 

co nghia, co phan, co chia, co canh, co tranh, do goi la "bat thuc". Phan ngoai cua "luc hop", 

thanh nhan de yen ma khong luan den. Phan trong cua "luc hop", thanh nhan luan den ma 

khong ban. Lich su doi Xuan Thu cua cac Tien vuong, thanh nhan ban den ma khong che 

khen bien luan. Cho nen tuy co phan chia ma khong phan chia; bien bac ma khong bien bac. 

Sao vay? La vi thanh nhan thi 6m giu, chung nhan thi bien bac de ma khoe khoang. Nen moi 

co loi noi nay: "hay bien phan, thi co cho khong thay r5 duoc". Va, "dai Dao" thi khong xung 

ten; "dai bien" thi khong co loi; "dai nhan" thi khong thuong ai; 'dai liem" thi khong nhun 

nhuong; 'dai dung" thi khong lam hai ai. Dao ma sang thi khong phai Dao; loi ma ro rang thi 

khong toi chon, nhan ma thuong thi khong nen viec; liem ma thanh thi khong the tin; dung ma 

hai nguoi thi khong nen viec. Nam dieu ay tron ma thanh vuong. Cho nen, biet dung cho ma 

minh khong the biet, la den chon roi vay. Co ai biet duoc each bien biet ma khong dung den 

loi, noi ma khong can phai noi ra loi? Neu co ke biet duoc, ke ay goi la Thien phu (kho troi) 

do vo mai ma khong day, rot ra mai ma khong can, nhung khong biet do dau ma den. Nen 

moi goi la "che anh sang" (bao quang). 

Cho nen ngay xua Nghieu hoi Thuan: 

"Ta muon phat Tong, Khoai, Tu Ngao, nganh mat sang Nam ma khong thay long khoan 

khoai. Nhu the la co lam sao?" 

Thuan noi: 

"Nhu ba nguoi ay (vua cua ba nuoc ay) khac nao song 6 giiia co bong co ngai. Nha Vua sao 

lai khong thay long khoan khoai? Xua kia, muoi mat troi cung moc, muon vat deu duoc soi 

sang, huong chi cai Due cua nguoi con hon mat troi!" 

E. Khiet Khuyet van ho Vuong Nghe[lxii] viet: 

Tu tri vat chi so dong thi ho? 

Viet: ngo 6 ho tri chi. 

Tu tri tu chi so bat tri da? 

Viet: ngo 6 ho tri chi. 

Nhien tac vat vo tri da? 

Viet: ngo 6 ho tri chi. Tuy nhien, thuong thi ngon chi. Dung cu tri ngo so vi tri chi phi bat tri 

da? dung cu tri ngo so vi bat tri chi phi tri da? Tha ngo thuong thi van ho nhii[lxiii] : dan thap 

tarn, tac yeu tat thien tu[lxiv], thu thien ho tai[lxv]? Moc xu tac chuy lat tuan cu[lxvi], vien 

hau nhien ho tai? tarn gia thuc tri chanh xu? Dan thuc so hoan[lxvii], me 16c thuc tien[lxviii], 

luong thu cam dai[lxix], xi nha thi thu[lxx]: tii gia thuc nhi tri chanh vi? vien bien thu di vi 

thu[lxxi] me dur 16c giao, thu du ngu du. Mao tuong Le Co nhon chi so my da, ngu kien chi 



tham nhap, dieu kien chi cao phi, me 16c kien chi quyet sau[lxxii]. Tii gia thuc tri thien ha chi 

chanh sac tai? 

Tu nga quan chi, nhan nghia chi doan, thi phi chi do, phien nhien hao loan, ngo 6 nang tri ky 

bien. 

Khiet- Khuyet viet: tu bat tri loi hai, tac chi nhan co bat tri loi hai ho? 

Vuong Nghe viet: chi nhan than hi! dai trach phan nhi bat nang nhiet, ha han ho nhi bat nang 

han. Tat loi pha son, phong chin hai, nhi bat nang kinh. Nhuoc nhien gia, thua van khi, ky 

nhat nguyet, nhi du ho tu hai chi ngoai, tu sinh vo bien u ky, nhi huong loi hai chi doan ho? 

DICH NGHIA: 

E. Khiet Khuyet hoi Vuong Nghe: 

6ng biet cho dong phai giong nhau cua moi vat khong? 

Ta biet dau viec do. 

ong biet cho ma ong khong biet khong? 

Ta biet dau viec do. 

Vay thi, moi vat, cung khong biet gi ca hay sao? 

Ta biet dau viec do. Tuy vay, ta thu noi xem sao. biet dau cai ma ta goi la biet, lai chang phai 

la cai ma ta khong biet? Biet dau cai ma ta goi la khong biet lai chang phai la cai ma ta biet? 

Va, ta da tung thii hoi nguoi: nguoi nam trong cho am map thi sanh ra dau lung va te liet mot 

ben minh; con ca chach thi co sao khong? Nguoi o tren cay run ray so set; con loai khi vuon 

thi co sao khong? Ba loai ay, ai biet cho o nao la cho o chinh? Con nguoi thi ua an thit tha, 

huou nai thi thich an co non; ret thi cho ran con la ngon; chim meo chim cu thi nghien an 

chuot bo. Bon loai ay, ai biet vi an nao la chinh vi? Vuon va khi theo voi nhau, nai va huou 

cung voi nhau, chach va ca loi voi nhau. Mao Tuong, Le Co, nguoi thay thi cho la dep, ma ca 

thay thi Ian sau, chim thay thi bay cao, huou nai thay thi chay dai. Bon loai ay, ai biet sac dep 

nao la chinh sac trong thien ha? 

Tu ma xem, thi dau moi cua nhan nghia, duong neo cua thi phi roi loan lung tung, ta lam sao 

biet dau ma phan bien. 

Khiet Khuyet noi: ong khong biet loi hai, con bac chi nhan cung khong biet loi hai nua hay 

sao? 

Vuong Nghe noi: chi nhan la bac than: cham Ion chay, khong the lam cho do nong, song Ha 

song Han dac ma khong the lam cho do lanh; set danh vo nui; gio day bien ca cung khong lam 

cho do so. Nguoi nhu the thi theo hoi may, coi mat troi mat trang ma rong choi ngoai bon 

bien, chet song con khong lam cho nguoi ho dien dao phuong chi la moi loi hai? 

G. Cu Thudc tu[lxxiii], van ho Truong Ngo tu viet: 

Ngo van chu[lxxiv] phu tu thanh nhan bat tung su u vu, bat tuu loi, bat vi hai, bat hi cau, bat 

duyen dao[lxxv], vo vi hiiu vi[lxxvi], \mu vi vo vi[lxxvii] nhi du ho tran cau chi 

ngoai[lxxviii]. Phu tu[lxxix] di vi man lang[lxxx] chi ngon, nhi nga di vi dieu dao chi 

hanh[lxxxi] da. Ngo tu di vi he nhuoc? 

Truong Ngo tu viet: 

Thi Hoang de chi so thinh uynh da, nhi Khiru[lxxxii] da ha rue di tri chi. Tha nhu diec dai tao 

ke, kien noan nhi cau thoi da[lxxxiii], kien dan nhi cau hieu chich. Du thuong vi nhii vong 

ngon chi, nhu di vong thinh chi. He[lxxxiv] bang[lxxxv] nhat nguyet, hiep vu tru, vi ky than 

hop[lxxxvi] tri ky hoat hon[lxxxvii] di le tuong ton[lxxxviii]. Chung nhan dich dich[lxxxix], 

thanh nhan ngu xuan[xc] tham van tue nhi nhat thanh thuan[xci]. 

DICH NGHIA: 

G. Cu Thuoc hoi Truong Ngo: 

Toi nghe noi ong rang thanh nhan khong ban den viec doi; khong tim loi; khong lanh hai; 

khong tha thiet den viec gi; cung khong quan quit voi Dao; co noi (ma nhu) khong co noi; 

khong noi ma nhu da noi; tha ho rong choi ngoai bui bam (cua cuoc doi). Thay toi cho do la 

loi noi vu vo, con toi, thi lai cho do la cai hanh cua ke da nhap dien noi Dao roi vay. i ong nhu 



the nao? 

Trudng Ngo noi: 

Do la dieu ma Hoang de nghe con nghi ngo thay, ong Khuu lam gi du de ma hieu duoc. Va, 

nguoi cung doan hoi sdm lam: vua thay trung ga la da mong duoc nghe tieng ga gay, vua 

thay vien dan la da mong duoc an chim nuong. Nay ta thu vi nguoi noi bay ma nghe, con 

nguoi cung nghe bay ma choi. Lam the nao de dua ke nhat nguyet, nhap cung vu tru, xao tron 

ca thi phi, quy tien, vuot muon tuoi ma 6m giu cai cho thuan nhat bat bien. 

H. Van vat tan nhien nhi di thi tuong uan[xcii]. Du 6 ho tri duyet sinh chi phi hoac da? Du 6 

ho tri 6 tu chi phi nhuoc tang nhi bat tri quy gia da? 

Le chi co, Ngai phong nhan chi tu da. Tan quoc chi thuy dac chi da, the khap thiem cam. Cap 

ky chi u vuong so, du vuong dong khuong sang, thuc so hoan[xciii], nhi hau hoi ky khap da. 

Du 6 ho tri phu tu gia bat hoi ky thuy chi ky sinh ho? 

Mong am tuu gia, dan nhi khoc khap, mong khap khoc gia, dan nhi dien liep[xciv]. Phuong 

ky mong da, bat tri ky mong da. Mong chi trung, huu chiem ky mong yen, giac nhi hau tri ky 

mong da. Tha huu dai giac, nhi hau tri thu ky dai mong da. Nhi ngu gia tu di vi giac, thiet 

thiet nhi tri chi quan ho muc ho? 

Co tai! Khuu da du nhii, giai mong da. Du vi nhu mong diec mong da. Thi ky ngon da, ky 

danh vi dieu quy. Van the chi hau nhi nhat ngo dai thanh, tri ky giai gia, thi dan mo ngo chi 

da. 

Ky su nga du nhuoc bien hi nhuoc thang nga, nga bat nhuoc thang. Nhuoc qua thi da, nga 

qua phi da da? Nga thang nhuoc, nhuoc bat ngo thang, nga qua thi da, nhi qua phi da da? Ky 

hoac thi da, ky hoac phi da da? Ky cau thi da, ky cau phi da da? Nga du nhuoc, bat nang 

tuong tri da, tac nhan co tho ky dam am, ngo thuy su chanh chi? Six dong ho nhuoc gia chanh 

chi, ky du nhuoc dong hi, 6 nang chanh chi? Su dong ho nga gia chanh chi, ku dong ho nga 

hi, 6 nang chanh chi? Su di ho nga dii nhuoc gia chanh chi, ky di ho nga du nhuoc hi, 6 nang 

chanh chi? Su dong ho nga dii nhuoc gia chanh chi, ky dong ho nga dii nhuoc hi, 6 nang 

chanh chi? Nhien tac nga du nhuoc du nhan cau bat nang tuong tri da, nhi dai bi da da? Ha vi 

hoa chi di thien nghe[xcv]. Viet: thi bat thi, nhien bat nhien. 

Thi nhuoc qua thi da, tac thi chi di ho bat thi da, diec vo bien. Nhien nhuoc qua nhien da, tac 

nhien chi di ho bat nhien da, diec vo bien. Hoa thinh chi tuong dai, nhuoc ky bat tuong dai, 

hoa chi di thien nghe, nhon chi di man dien, so di cung nien da. Vong nien vong nghia[xcvi] 

chan[xcvii] u vo canh, co ngu chu vo canh[xcviii]. 

DICH NGHIA: 

H. Hieu tan van vat roi, moi thay no thuan nhat. Ta sao biet ham song chang phai la lam? Ta 

sao biet so chet lai chang la me, ma khong biet cho do la con duong ve? 

Le Co, con cua mot vi phong nhan xii Ngai, ga cho Vua nuoc Tan. Khi ve nha chong, luy uot 

dam bau. Kip khi den hoang cung, cung vua dong sang, nem mui do hoan, roi lai hoi nan giot 

le ngay xua. Ta biet dau ke chet lai khong hoi han vi minh da mong duoc song them? 

Co ke chiem bao cuoi giiia tiec, tinh giac khoc trong long, hoac chiem bao buon khoc, khi 

tinh giac nhu vui san. Luc chiem bao khong biet chiem bao, khi tinh giac moi hay la mong ca. 

Cho co bac dai giac moi biet cuoc dai mong do thoi. Nhung ma ke ngu lai tu cho ho la tinh, 

roi ho cung tin that rang ho la bac vua chua, hay ho la ke chan ngua! Gan thay, ong Khuu 

cung nguoi deu chiem bao ca! Loi noi ay, goi la loi "dieu quy" (quai go)! Sau muon doi, may 

ma gap duoc bac dai thanh biet each giai nghia cua no ra, thi trong mot sdm mot chieu se ngo 

no duoc vay. 

Neu ta noi voi nguoi, cung tranh bien: nguoi khong duoc ta, ta khong thang duoc nguoi, vay 

nguoi han la da phai, ma ta han la da quay chua? Neu ta thang duoc nguoi; nguoi khong 

thang duoc ta, vay ta han la da phai, ma nguoi han da la quay chua? Hay la, khi thi phai, khi 

thi quay hay sao? Hay la, ca hai chung ta deu phai ca, hoac cung quay ca hay sao? Ta va 

nguoi khong the biet duoc nhau, thi nguoi nguoi danh phai chiu toi tarn roi! Ta phai nho ai 



chinh lai viec ay? Nhd ke dong voi nguoi thi lam sao chinh duoc viec do! Cay nguoi khac voi 
ta va nguoi, de chinh lai viec do u? No da khac voi ta va khac voi nguoi, thi lam sao chinh lai 
duoc viec do? Cay nguoi dong voi ta va dong voi nguoi thi lam sao chinh duoc viec do? Vay 
thi ta voi nguoi cung voi nguoi do deu khong the biet nhau duoc, sao phai cho nguoi do lam 
gi? 

Sao goi la hoa hop voi thien nghe? La phai ma cung la chang phai; phai vay ma cung la chang 

phai vay. Cai phai cua nguoi, neu qua thuc la phai, thi cai phai do co khac gi cai khong phai, 

cho nen cung khong bien duoc. Cai phai vay cua nguoi, neu qua thuc la phai vay, thi cai phai 

vay do co khac gi cai khong phai vay, thanh ra cung khong bien duoc. Hoa ra thay deu la doi 

dai, neu muon khong doi dai chi bang hoa hop voi tu nhien (thien nghe), nhan do ma ldi noi 

cua ta dang vinh cuu. Quen song chet, quen phai quay la suot thong le hu vo (vo canh), nen 

gui minh vao coi hu vo (vo canh). 

I. Vong luong van canh viet: Nang tu hanh, kim tu chi. Nang tu toa, kim tu khoi. Ha ky vu, 

dac thao du? 

Canh viet: Ngo huu dai nhi nhien gia da? Ngo so dai huu hun dai nhi nhien gia da? Ngo dai 

xa phu dieu due da? 6 thuc so di nhien, 6 thuc so di bat nhien? 

DICH NGHIA: 

I. Bong lu hoi bong to: "Nay anh di, gio anh dung. Nay anh ngoi, gio anh day. Sao anh khong 

co net rieng?" 

Bong to noi: ta co phai nuong cho ma nhu the chang? Hay la cho ta nuong cho lai con phai 

nuong cho noi cho khac ma nhu the chang? Ta phai nuong cho, nhu vay ran canh ve chang? 

Sao biet so di no la the? Sao biet so di no khong phai la the? 

K. Tich gia Trang Chau mong vi ho diep, hu hu nhien ho diep da, tu du thich chi dii bat tri 

Chau da. Nga nhien giac, tac cu cu nhien Chau da. Bat tri Chau chi mong vi ho diep du? Ho 

diep chi mong vi Chau du? Chau du ho diep, tac tat huu phan hi. Thu chi vi Vat hoa. 

DICH NGHIA: 

Xua Trang Chau chiem bao thay minh la budm vui phan lam budm, tu thay thich chi, khong 

con biet co Chau nua. Chot tinh giac, thi lai thay minh la Chau. Khong biet Chau chiem bao la 

budm, hay budm chiem bao la Chau? Chau va budm at phai co tanh phan khac nhau. Do goi 

la Vat hoa. 

TONG BINH: 

Nhu ta da thay d thien Tieu Dieu Du, muc dich cua hoc thuyet Trang tu la tu do tuyet doi. 

Muon dat den "tu do tuyet doi", viec can thiet dau tien la giai thoat tarn tri ra khoi cai vong 

nhan dinh sai lam cua nhan thuc nhi nguyen chia phan cai Song Mot lam hai phan rat phan 

biet: tarn vat, thi phi, thien ac, sanh tu, vinh nhuc. . . 

Te- Vat- Luan la phuong phap luan cua Trang tu de dat den Tieu dieu tu tai. Te- Vat tiic la 

"nhat thiet binh dang" nghia la van vat deu ngang bang nhau ca, ngang nhau ve pham, nhu ta 

da thay d Tieu Dieu Du. 

That vay, neu khong co duoc cai nhan quang nhin thay su "nhat thiet binh dang" trong cac su 

vat thi at phai cd cho chon lira, nghia la con co cho "lay bd"[xcix], cd cho ua ghet. Lay cai gi, 

bo cai gi? Lay cai tot, bo cai xau; ua cai hay, ghet cai do. Va nhan the mdi cd su thien lech va 

no le theo mot bang gia tri chu quan nao ve su vat. Cd cai "phai" doi voi ta ngay nay, nhung 

qua ngay mai no se khong con "phai" niia. Cd mdn hop voi ta, nhung lai khong hop voi nguoi 

khac. Cd viec hop voi nguoi nay, lai khong hop voi nguoi kia. Mot van de tuong doi va tarn 

thdi. Nhung sai lam va nguy hiem la khi nao ta lai nhan no la mot chan ly tuyet doi, nghia la 

mot chan ly bat di bat dich va chung cho bat cii d thdi gian hay khong gian nao. Cho nen mdi 

noi rang: 'co cho ua ghet, co cho lay bo, thi khong con goi la tu do tuyet doi nua."[c] 

Tom lai, nguoi that la tu do, biet trong su tieu dieu tu tai trong ban tinh la nguoi phai biet 

"xem bang"[ci] thi phi, thien ac. . . khong chiu song no le bat cii mot bang gia tri ve thi phi, 

thien ac cua mot che do luan- ly nao ca. Nen biet rang ho khong phai la nguoi "vo luan- ly" 



nhu: nguoi ta da hieu lam ma la mot hang nguoi da vuot len tren tat ca moi thii luan- ly tarn 
thuong chat hep: ho la hang nguoi khong con tu tarn tu due nua, nghia la hang nguoi "vo ky", 

'\,A ^Anrr" 1,>> "-.,A Ar,„U"ln^ 



"vo cong" va "vo danh"[cii] 



Nam- Qudch Tu Ky 

Chu(Ca) a day, phdi doc la ky. Nam- Qudch la thanh phia Nam, nhdn lay cho a ma dat hieu. 

[ii] Hu: hoi thoi ra {bang mieng). Theo phep ho hap cua Dao gia, thi hit vo bang mui, tha ra 

bang mieng. 

[Hi] Thdpyen la hinh dang nhu ke mat hon, bapha, nga ngde. Sac thai cua ngu&i nhdp dinh 

tham Men, xudt than gidi the. 

[iv] Tang ky ngdu: mat ban. Cdu nay, do cdu " ngd tang nga" phdn du&i ma suy ra. Ban cua 

Xdc, la Hon. Cho nen thay vi dich la "mat ban ", twang can dich la " mat hon ". 

[v] Nhan- Thanh Tit Du: ho Nhan, ten la Yen, thuy la Thanh, tu la Tu Du. 

[vi] Nhi: dong v&i chu Nhi(nguai, mi, anh). Doc la " nhu chi van" (cdu hoi cua anh). 

[vii] Nu: a day, doc la nhu {anh). 

[viii] Lai: ong tieu (goi la sdo). Dia lai, la sdo dat. 

Nhan lai: sdo nguai. Tieng sdo tuy co ddi co ngdn, co cao co thdp... tuu trung chi do mot hoi 

tha thoi vdo ong true ma gay ra, tuy 16 hong gdn xa ma sinh nhung dm thanh khdc biet va 

mudn dieu. 

[ix] Han hdn: rong Ian, bao gom, trum lap 

Nhan nhan: phdn tich den cho nho mon, ua cho te nhi, phdn tich. 

[x] Viem viem: dong thay thi phi la mot. 

Chiem chiem: phdn biet viec nho. 

[xi] Hon- giao: luc ngu thi tinh than hop nhau lam mot, vi khong bi ngoai vat lam cho xao 

lang, khi thuc, thi bi ngoai cdnh kich dong lam cho tinh than bi xao lang tan ra ngoai nen 

nhan thay chia Ua "vat nga ", nghia la thay su chia phdn trong van su van vat. 

[xii] Cdu: la hop lai 

Tarn ddu: long bi tranh chap giua van de noi- ngoai 

[xiii] Man: long rong rai 

[xiv] Giao: am la giao, co nghia la sdu sac, cho sdu tham cua long. 

[xv] Mat: de dat, can than. 

[xvi] Man man: Nhin tu nhu sanh, ca hai la mot. 

Chuy chuy: dang can than, ti mi, te tarn, chu y. 

Tieu khung chuy chuy, dai khung man man: de dat cdi nho, la phdn biet sanh tu, de dat cdi 

Ian la xem tu sanh la mot. 

[xvii] Lu: lo nghi nhieu 

Than: thuangxot 

Bien: hay phdn phuc 

Nhiet: kinh hai 

Dieu: phu phiem, khinh phu 

Dat: phong tung 

Khdi: tinh due ma rong 

Thai: chi tdnh tinh dung mao do trai phu cho. 

[xviii] Khong cho Thien Tdnh xudt hien. 

[xix] Ngdn gia huu ngdn: 

Chu ngdn truac, Id lai noi; chu ngdn sau la ndi len mot cdi gi, tuc la co moty nghia. 

Co moty nghia, thi dinhien lai ndi da bi han dinh, vi cd han dinh thi nghia no mdi rd rang. 

Va nhu vdy, lai ndi khong the dung de ndi ve Dao, cdi ma khong the ndo mieu ta duac: Dao 



khd Dao, phi thu&ng Dao. 

Chit xuy a day la cung mot chit dung a doan van tren: " xuy van bat dong ". Gid thdi(nhu Dao) 

thi khong cd tieng, troi len muon tieng khdc nhau la vi gap cdc 16 hong lorn nhd bat dong ma 

sanh ra. Cho nen mod not: " ngon phi xuy da" 

[xx] Khdu dm: Tieng keu cua con chim con vita no, dm chi led noi vo nghia. 

fxxij Dao thi chira cd Chan vd Nguy; led, cung chira cd Thi Phi. Nhu vdy, trong ngon tu, neu 

noi den Phdi la cd ham chira ben trong cdi Quay. The thi dua vdo ddu ma biet rang Idi noi 

ndo la that Phdi(phdi tuyet doi), Idi noi ndo la that Qudy(qudy tuyet doi) ? Bed vdy mod noi: 

"Dao sao lai dua vdo Chan hay Nguy; Idi, sao lai dua vdo Thi voi Phi ". 

fxxiij Dao 6 ho vdng nhi bat ton 

(Dao sao qua ma khong con) 

Qua ma khong con, la chi ve cdi bien dong cua Dao rat mau le, trong mot cdi chop la da bien 

mat khong con nhu tru&c nua. Han chi Dao vdo mot ngon tit " tinh" vd " bat bien" khong the 

duac, vi vdy, Dao khong the dung lai ma noi duac. Cho nen mod noi " ngon 6 ho ton nhi bat 

khd". "Bat khd" la khong noi duac(bdt khd dao). hod hqn dinh bien thdnh mot le " tinh", mot 

cdi gi khong bien duac nua, trong khi Dao bien khong ngitng. 

[xxiii] Dao an u, tieu thdnh: 

Chu "an" day, co nghia la " dua vdo". "Tieu thdnh", la su vat chua duac day dii, nhuNhdn, 

Nghia... 

Cdu nay muon noi: "Chan Nguy thi dua vdo cho chua day du ma khdi phdt". Neu su vat ma 

day du, thi sao cd sinh ra Chan Nguy? Cd Chan cd Nguy thi chi thdy duac cd mot phdn chdn 

ly ma thoi. 

[xxiv] Ngon an u vinh hoa: 

" Vinh hoa " tire la led noi hoa my, phu phien vd bien biet cua nhi nguy en khong the dung de 

mieu td duac chdn ly. Lai noi " bat todn" cua gicd nhi nguy en, khong sao dung duac de ban 

den Dao. Cho nen mod noi: "Idi noi la dua vdo thi phi ma khdi". So sanh vai cdu:" my ngon 

bat tin; Tin ngon bat my" cua Lao tu. 

[xxv] Ngdu: la cho doi dai cua no, nhu Am thi Duong la ngdu cua no, Duong thi Am la ngdu 

cua no. 

[xxvi] Xu: noi cot yeu. 

[xxvii] Hodn trung: 

Hodn: Thi vd Phi " phdn phuc", thi do phi ma cd, phi do thi ma sinh, thi bien ra phi, phi bien 

ra thi... tiep noi nhau, tim kiem nhau khong biet ddu la ciing, nhu tren mot cdi vdng trdn, cho 

nen mod goi la "hodn " (vdng trdn). "Hodn trung " la trung tarn cua cdi vdng trdn cung de dm 

chi ludt Thien Qudn. 

[xxviii] Ddc: la " tu ddc " nghia la tu minh nam duac cdi Dao vd ung dung hanh phuc, khong 

can gi den ngoai vat nua. 

fxxixj Co: la da den duac tod cho cung ly. 

[xxx] Nhdn thi di: la noi ke dat Dao, vd vi, vd tarn, cho nen nhdn cho Thi Phi ma vuat len, 

khong con thdy cd thi phi nua. 

[xxxi] Vu: khoai lang, theo Tu- Ma. 

fxxxiij doc la Mo 

[xxxiii] Thien- Qudn: 

Thoi Tuyen noi: Qudn la cdi bdnh xe xoay trdn de nguoi tha bat do sanh. Lai cd cho viet la cd 

y ndi ve su qudn binh, vdng ban kinh cud bdnh xe bao gio cung bang nhau, ludn ludn qudn 

binh. Cung goi la Thien Nghe. (Ngu ngon) 

a thien Thien Dia viet: " Thien Dia tuy dai, ky hda qudn da" (Troi Dat tuy Ion ma su bien hda 

deu qudn binh cd). do la dng gidi cdi nghia cua Thien Qudn vd day la yeu chi cua todn thien 

Te Vat. 

[xxxiv] Luang hanh: khong Ha khdi thi phi ma lai duac den cho khong cd thi phi. 



So sanh cdu "tri vong thi phi" cua Trang- tie:" vong thi phi" dduphdi la khong biet thi phi, ma 

that ra, la vuat len tren thi phi, sau khi that biet ro the ndo la thi phi. 

Buc dqt Dao khong phdi la ngu&i khong phdn biet thi phi(nhu ke ngu) ma la ke da rdnh le thi 

phi, hg da vuat len cd thi phi de ma dieu khien no. Cung nhu Dao gom cd Am Duong vd vuat 

len cd Am Duong de dieu khien cd Am Duong. Cho nen m&i noi " Thanh nhdn hoa chi di thi 

phi, nhi huu ho Thien Qudn " 

Daisetz T Suzuki noi rang: " Day la mot thu nghich thuyet ve triet hoc sau sac nhdt: "bien bat 

bien, vd bat bien bien ... " D.T. Suzuki noi day la noi ve thuyet Bat- Nha Binh- Dang cua Phdt 

gido, nhung no cung dong mot nghia v&i thuyet Te Vat cua Trang- tit. 

[xxxv] Tire la thuyet" Huyen dong vat nga" cua Lao tit. 

[xxxvi] do la phep "di bat bien itng van bien ": thi phi noi dudi nhau ma sinh ra, khong biet 

ddu la ddu moi, nhu tren mot cdi vdng trbn. Nhdn thi ma sanh phi, nhdn phi ma sanh thi, mien 

mien bat tuyet. 

[xxxvii] Chi: den noi, den chdn (cung tan). 

[xxxviii] Phong: cd cdnh gi&i. Tuy thdy la cd cdnh gi&i, nhung chua biphdn day do. 

[xxxix] Dao, thi gom cd thi phi vd vuat len tren cd Thu v&i Phi. Neu lai chia- phdn Thi Phi thi 

Dao nhu gidm bat(khuy). Nhdn the ngu&i ta m&i bay ra Nhdn, Nghia, Le... titc la" di" nghia 

la long Nhdn- di(yeu thuong) de hoa hop lai nhung gi da bi chia phdn. Lao tit cung noi: Dai 

Dao phi, huu Nhdn Nghia... Theo Trang- tit, cung nhu Lao tit, do la cdngviec mien cu&ng 

gid tao: khong bao gi& noi lai Vat Nga(hay Nhi Nga) mot khi da bi chia phdn. Cho nen m&i 

noi: "Dao chi s& di khuy, di chi s& di thdnh " 

[xl] Chieu- thi: titc la Chieu- van, ten ngu&i xua d&n cam rat gidi. 

Dung dm nhac de hoa lai nhung dm thanh da bi chia phdn, do la dung y cua Trang- tit trong 

thien Te Vat khi dng ban den "nhdn lai" 

fxlij Su Khodng: mot nhac cdng d&i xua, rat sanh dm ludt. 

[xlii] Hue tit: mot tay sanh bien ludn. 

Co nha binh ludn cho rang Trang- tit & day khi noi den Chieu van la muon dm chi Hodng de; 

Su Khodng, dm chi Nghieu Thudn, vd Hue tit, dm. chi Khong tit. 

[xliii] Kien- bach: titc la noi ve bien thuyet" kien bach" vd "bach ma" cua Cong ton Long d&i 

Chien quoc, mot thu nguy bien ma rot cuoc moi ngu&i khong ai hieu gi ducrc cd. 

[xliv] Hoat nghi chi dieu: dnh sang map m&, Trang- tit muon dm. chi Dao, bao gom. thi phi, 

khong thien hdn ben Thi hay ben Phi: cd Am ma cung cd Duong, cd Duong ma cung cd Am 

(Am trung chi Duong; Duong trung chi Am), titc la cdi nhdn quang cua ngu&i nhdn thdy cd 

thdy ede cap mdu thudn tren d&i deu la mot cd. 

[xlv] Dung: "Ngu chu dung", titc la dua theo cdi ly thong thu&ng cua ngu&i d&i. Xem lai 

doan tren: thuyet "trieu tarn, mo tit" cua ngu&i nudi khi. Bdc thdnh tri ddi v&i minh thi dung 

cdi sang map m& (hoat nghi chi dieu) titc la cdi dnh sang cua Dao ma ddi xit; nhung ddi v&i 

d&i, thi lai khdc, lay cdi ly thong thu&ng cua moi ngu&i ma ddi xit, khi thi ban den Thi, khi 

ludn den Phi de ma hoa v&i moi ngu&i, rdi "dung yen & cot true cua bdnh xe Tr&i (Thien 

Qudn) do goi la lu&ng hanh". "Ngu chu dung", titc cung mot y v&i "trieu tarn nhi mo tit" vdy. 

fxlvij Minh: "diminh", titc la lay cdi dnh sang phdn biet Thi Phi cua ngu&i d&i de ma xit su 

v&i ngu&i d&i. 

[xlvii] Thitva Thi: cd nghia la "do" vd "day", nghia la "vat" vd "nga". 

[xlviii] Huii thiiy: ngudn gdc cua cdi huu (cd): origine de I'Etre. 

Huu vi thity huu thiiy: cdi huu khong ngudn gdc: I 'Etre sans origine. 

Huu vi thiiy huu phu vi thiiy huu thiiy: ngudn gdc cua cdi huu khong ngudn gdc: origine de 

I 'Etre sans origine. 

Huu huu: cdi Cd (huu): I'Etre 

Huu vd: cdi khong (vd): le Neant (Non- Etre) 

Huu vi thity huu vd: cdi cd cd tru&c cdi khong. 



Huu vi thuy huu phu vi thuy huu vd: cdi khong cd tru&c cdi cd 

[xlix] Nhdt die ngon vi nhi: "mot" vd "Ion" Id "hai viec khdc nhau": Dao khong the con dung 

duac Ion ndi md mieu td duac. Tire Id cung mot y v&i Lao tu khi dng ndi: "Dao khd Dao phi 

thu&ngDqo... " vd "tri gid bat ngon, ngon gid bat tri". 

Nhi du nhdt vi Tarn: nhi: dm chi Am Duong twang doi ; mot: dm chi Dao. Citng nghia v&i cdu 

nay cua Lao tu: Nhdt sanh nhi, Nhi sanh Tarn, Tarn sanh van vat. Nhdt, la Dao tinh; Tarn, la 

Dao dong, Dao sinh sinh hda hda, tuc la so mot (Dao) cdng v&i so hai (Am Duong). Cho nen 

m&i noi t&i so Ba la tr& ve so Mot. 

Thanh nhdn thi biet "tr& ve" v&i so mot; chung nhdn thi chqy mai di ra vd luu tan vd citng. 

[I] thi: thi, la "day", la dm chi cdi Men tai tuyet doi, bao gom cd th&i gian. Nhdn thdy Dao 

mot roi, thi khong con thdy th&i gian chia phdn lam ba giai doan gid tao nua la qua khu, hien 

tai vd vi tai nua, ma thdy, bat cie & vdo luc ndo, mot cdi hien tai vd thuy vd chung. 

[li] Phong: la khu vuc, la chia ranh. Dao khong he co chia phdn thdnh timg khu vuc han dinh 

cua mot cdi thi hay phi, cua mot cdi Am hay Duong. 

[Hi] Thu&ng: dinh thuc. L&i dung de ban ve le Dao cung khong the han dinh theo mot dinh 

thuc ndo, la vi nhu the de bi han chi trong mot cdi thi hay phi ma thdnh mat Dao. 

[liii] Vi thi: cung nhu noi thi phi sinh ra. 

Chan: chia thdnh timg khu vuc. 

[liv] Luc hap chi ngoqi; noi ve ben ngodi Tinh vd Phdn cua van vat. 

Luc hap chi noi: noi ve ben trong Tinh vd Phdn cua van vat. 

[Iv] Bien: phdn biet thi phi md de binh phdm theo mot chieu ndo. 

[Ivi] Phdn da gid, huu bat phdn di: phdn, la phdn biet thi phi; bat phdn, la khong thien han 

ben ndo, md chi gin giu the qudn binh cua thi hay phi. 

Bien da gid, huu bat bien da: bien, day la bien bde (tranh ludn). Tranh ludn, la co phdn thi 

phi; nhung tranh ludn md khong tranh ludn, la tranh ludn de lam sang to lap tru&ng cua minh 

chie khong phdi de tranh ludn phdn phdi cho minh. Ngu&i dat Dao khong bao gi& tranh ludn 

de thuyet phuc ai, hay dan du ai theo minh cd, vi theo Trang- tu ngu&i hieu Dao khong bat 

chu&c ai cd md tr& ve song cdi song cua minh, song yen v&i cdi md tao hoa da an bdi, khong 

deo bong ham mudn cdi ngodi tdnh phdn cua minh. 

[Ivii] Bien da gid, huu bat kien da: bien la phdn biet thi phi de md bien ludn bien bde, vi vdy 

khong the nhdn thdy duac Dao tuyet doi la cdi le gom nam bao triim vd vuat len tren thi phi, 

thien dc. Nen mai noi: 'hay bien phdn, thi co cho khong thdy ro duac ", vi chi thdy co mot be: 

be mat hay be trdi cua su that md thoi. 

flviiij Dao chieu nhi bat Dao: Dao md choi sang, nghia la ro rang, thi la Dao theo han mot 

ben ndo roi, thi hay phi. Cho nen Dao md nhu the, khong phdi Dao. Dao, du&ng nhu mit m&, 

nua toi nua sang, Ian Ion Am Duong, thi phi. Trang- tit da ditng tru&c day danh tie nhu "hoat 

nghi chi dieu" vd tiep sau day danh tie "bao quang" de dm chi Dao. So sanh cdu nay cua Lao 

tie: "tuc nhdn chieu chieu; nga doc hon hon" (chuong 20 Dao Due Kinh). 

[lix] Ngon bien nhi bat cap: cung mot y v&i cdu tren "Dao chieu nhi bat Dao". Bien day la 

phdn biet thi phi. Bat cap la khong day du, con thieu thon, vi the he noi thi thi lai con thieu 

phi, chi noi co cdi be mat md khong noi den be trdi cua mot su vat ndo, cho nen m&i noi "l&i 

md ro rang thi khong t&i chon ". 

[Ix] Tri chi ky s& bat tri: tuc la biet dung lai cho md ly trivd l&i noi khong lam sao hieu vd 

noi duac, do m&i that khon ngoan, thuang tri. Dieng lai, la khong di ddu nua, & lai do. So 

sndh v&i cdu: "tri bat tri, thuang" cua Lao tie (chuong 71). 

"Chi hi" la da den noi den chon, tuc la da den cho cung cue cua su hieu biet vdy. 

[Ixi] Bao quang: che day dnh sang. Lai cung co ngu&i cho rang "bao quang" co nghia la 

'nhu co nhu khong". Thi cung cung mot nghia nhu "che day dnh sang". 

So sanh cdu "bat ngon chi bien " v&i cdu "bat ngon chi gido " vd 'thien gid bat bien; bien gid 

bat thien " (chuong 51 cua Lao tu). 



flxiij Vuang Nghe: mot bdc hien thai Vua Nghieu. & thien Thien dia thi cho rang dng la thdy 

cua Khiet Khuyet. 

[Ixiii] doc la "nhu". 

[Ixiv] Thien tit: chit mot ben than minh (te Met). 

[Ixv] Thu: dm la thu, tire la "ne thu", mot thic cd co the song trong bun, luc nu&c can. Ta goi 

la cd chach. Ban Nhuang Tdng dich la lodi nhdi, khong dung. 

[Ixvi] Tudn, dm la huyen, cung v&i huyen (thong dung). 

[Ixvii] So hoan 

So: lodi thu an cd. Hoan: lodi gia sue, an cung v&i ngu&i ta. Ndi chung la an thit, cd ban. 

[Ixviii] Tien: cd non. 

flxixj Luong thu la con ret. 

[Ixx] Chu "thi" 

flxxij Thu: con cdi, gidng cdi (ddi v&i chu hung). 

[Ixxii] Quyet sdu: cui ddu ma chay, khong ngd lai sau. 

[Ixxiii] Cu- Thu&c tu: ten cua mot mdn de cua Khong tu. Gia thdc, khong cd that. 

flxxivj Chu: ddng nghia v&i chu u 

[Ixxv] Duyen: cot lai v&i nhau, & day cd nghia la quyen luyen, rang budc, qudn quit. Cdu "bat 

duyen dqo ", y mudn noi: bdc thdnh nhan cung con phdi deo dudi, qudn quyt theo Dqo nua, 

nghia la khong con chay theo Dqo, con men Dqo, con cdu Dqo nua ... vi nhu the la con chua 

duac Dqo, vi ngu&i vd Dqo con la hai ma chua la mot (thdnh thudn). Hap nhdt v&i Dqo, thi 

khong con thdy cd Dqo de ma theo dudi, qudn quit nua. 

[Ixxvi] Vd vi huu vi: khong noi ma da noi. Cung nghia v&i "vd vi nhi vd bat vi": khong lam ma 

khong cd gi la khong lam. Tire la ndi ve cdng dung cua chu Hu Vd trong l&i ndi: tuy khong 

ditng den l&i ndi, nhungy nghia lai nhieu han la da ndi nhieu; tuc la "bat ngdn chi gido" cua 

Lao tu. 

[Ixxvii] Huii vi vd vi: ndi, ma nhu khong cd ndi gi cd. ddng nghia v&i cdu "huu ngdn vd 

ngdn ". Cdi dieu ma thdnh nhan ddc Dqo ndi, thu&ng chi la ditng den l&i ndi cua gi&i nhi 

nguyen, nen chi cd gia tri "nua chung" ma thdi; trong khi Chan ly gdm cd hai mat (trdi vd 

mat, dm vd duangj. Cho nen dii la cd ndi ma du&ng nhu chua he cd ndi, vi khong the ndi ra 

duac cdi Chan ly Todn dien v&i nhung danh tie han dinh cua Nhi Nguyen. 

[Ixxviii] Trdn cdu chi ngoqi: trdn, la bui; cdu, la bui nhd. dm chi su vd thu&ng cua su vat tren 

d&i: rot cudc thdy deu tr& thdnh tro bui. "trdn cdu chi ngoqi " la ngodi su tieu vong vd bat 

thu&ng cua su vat, tire dm chi cdi le thu&ng ton noi ta la Dqo. 

[Ixxix] Phu tu: dm chi Khong tu. 

[Ixxx] Mqnh lang: dm la man lang, nghia la vu va khong dung v&i thuc te. 

[Ixxxi] Hdnh: doc la hqnh, tire la tu each. 

[Ixxxii] Khuu: ten cua Khong tu. 

Vong: nghia la bay bq, bu&ng. 

[Ixxxiii] Th&i da: dm chi con gd (thu&ng goi la tu da). 

[Ixxxiv] He: lam the ndo, lam sao. 

[Ixxxv] Bang: dua vao. 

[Ixxxvi] Than hap: khong phdn biet nhau. 

[Ixxxvii] tri: phd mac cho 

Hoqt: Ion xdn, hdn loan. 

Hon: khong phdn biet, tdi tarn, ngu ddn, sdu kin. 

[Ixxxviii] Di le tuang ton: le, la chi ve su thdp hen; ton, la cao quy. imudn ndi: quy tien cung 

xem nhu nhau. 

[Ixxxix] dich dich: bdn ba, chay theo hap tap. Cdu "chung nhan dich dich " la mudn ndi ngu&i 

den dua theo thi phi, d at chay theo thi phi. 

[xc] Ngu xudn: khong nghien ciru, khong chia phdn su vat lam hai. Khong nhan thdy su khdc 



nhau giua cdc mau thudn. 

[xci] Tham van tue nhi nhdt thdnh thudn: chen vdo cuoc thien bien van hoa cua Troi Ddt, ma 

luon luon dm giu dwac cdi Dao mot bat bien va thudn nhdt. 

[xcii] Udn: tich tu lai, lien hap lai. chi su khong the chia lia giua van vat. 

[xciii] So hoqn: so la thit cdc con vat an co; hoan la htit cdc con vat nhd: mon an cao luong, 

co ban... 

[xciv] Mong dm tuu gid, dan nhi khoc khdp: chiem bao vui ve (du tiec ruau) nen khong mudn 

dut; tinh day thi tiec cdnh vui nen rdu buon khoc 16c. Cung nhu, chiem bao buon kho khoc 

16c, tinh day la thodt duac cdnh dau kho nen vui mieng nhu duac di sdn ban. Tom lai, mong 

ma vui thi tinh buon, mong ma buon thi tinh vui. dwac cdi nay thi mat cdi kia. 

[xcv] Thien nghe: tire la tu nhien, Thien qudn. 

[xcvi] Vong nien, vong nghia 

Vong nien, la muon noi ve su dong nhau cua Song, Chet. (Chu nien la chi ve thai gian). Con 

chit nghia la chi ve van de gid tri, dm chi van de thi phi, thien dc, nen vong nghia, la noi ve su 

dong nhau cua thi phi. 

[xcvii] Man dien: cdi bien cua V6 cue (tuc la cua Dao) 

Chan: la thong suang. 

[xcviii] Vo cdnh: dm chi cdnh cua Hu V6, hay la Dao. Co nhd chu gid cho V6 cdnh, tuc la vo 

cue, nhu the cung dong mot nghia nhu tren. 

[xcix] Khu, tuu: tuc la co su bo lay, nghia la chon lua. 

[c] Huu sa hieu 6, huu sa khu tuu, tdc bat ndng tuyet doi tu do hi. 

[ci] "Nhdt thiet binh dang " cd thdy van vat bang nhau cd. 

fciij Chi nhan vo ky, than nhan vo cong, thdnh nhan vo danh. 

NAM HOA KINH - TIEU- DIEU- DU : 

DICH NGHIA: 

TIEU- DIEU- DU 

A. Tai bien Bac co con ca Con, Ion khong biet may nghin dam. Ca nay hoa ra chim Bang: 

lung cua chim Bang Ion cung khong biet may nghin dam. Vo canh ma bay, canh no se ra nhu 

may che rop mot phuong troi. Bien dong, Bang ben bay sang bien Nam: bien Nam la Ao- 

Troi. 

Te Hai, sach chep cac viec ky quai noi: chim Bang, luc bay qua bien Nam, canh dap lam cho 

song nude noi len ba nghin dam dai; no nuong theo gio trot ma cat len chin muon dam cao, va 

bay luon sau thang mdi nghi. 

Cai ma ta thay tren khong kia co phai la bay" ngua rung" chang, hay la bui tran? Hay la cai 

hoi tho cua muon vat noi len? Con mau troi xanh xanh kia co phai la mau that cua no khong, 

hay chi la mau cua vo cung tham tham? Thi cai thay cua con chim Bang bay tren may xanh 

dom xuong dudi day cung chi nhu the ma thoi. 

Va lai, nude khong sau thi khong sue cho thuyen Ion. do mot chung nude nhd vo mot cai 

hung nhd trong nha, lay mot cong co tha len lam thuyen, thi thuyen tu noi; neu lai lay cai 

chung ay lam thuyen ma tha len, thi thuyen phai trit. La tai sao? tri nude khong sau ma thuyen 

thi Ion. Cung nhu lop gid khong day thi khong du sue cho noi canh ldn cua chim Bang. Bdi 

vay chim Bang khi bay len chin mudn dam cao la cdi len lop gid d dudi no. Chung ay, lung 

vac troi xanh, khong gi ngan trd, no bay thang qua Nam. 

*** 

Mot con ve va mot con chim cuu nhd thay vay, cudi ndi:" Ta quyet bay vut len cay du, cay 
phuong. Nhu bay khong tdi ma cd roi xudng dat thi thdi, chu khong sao ! Bay cao chin mudn 
dam, sang qua Nam ma lam gi? Ta thich bay den may canh dong gan day, an ba mieng no 
bung, rdi ve. Neu ta den chd xa tram dam, thi ta cd luong thuc mdi ngay. Con neu ta den chd 
xa nghin dam, thi ta cd ba thang luong thuc." 



Hai con vat ay, ma biet gi? 

Ke tieu tri sao kip ngudi dai tri. Ke tuoi nho sao kip ngudi tuoi Ian. 

Sao ma biet duoc the? nam mai biet gi duoc hoi sdc, ve sau biet sao duoc xuan, thu! Do deu 
la hang tuoi nho ca. Phuong Nam nude So co cay minh- linh, song mot xuan la nam tram nam 
; mot thu la nam tram nam. Thuong co co cay dai- xuan song mot xuan la tarn nghin nam, mot 
thu la tarn nghin nam.(do la hang tuoi Ion). Lau nay rung nghe danh song lau cua Banh to. He 
noi den song lau, thi ngudi ddi thuong dem do ma so sanh, nhu the khong dang buon sao? 
B. Thang chi van Cac da thi di. Cung phat chi bac, huu minh hai gia, thien tri da. Huu ngu 
yen, ky quang so thien ly, vi huu tri ky tu gia, ky danh vi Con. Huu dieu yen, ky danh vi 
Bang, boi nhuoc Thai Son, due nhuoc thuy thien chi van, doan phu dieu duong giac nhi 
thuong gia cuu van ly, tuyet van khi, phu thanh thien, nhien hau do Nam tha thich Nam minh 
da. Xich yen[ii] tieu chi viet: Bi tha he thich da. Nga dang duoc nhi thuong bat qua so nhan 
chi ha, ngao tudng bong hao chi gian, thu diec phi chi chi da. Nhi bi tha he thich da. Thu tieu 
dai chi bien[iii] da. 
DICH NGHIA: 

B. Ldi dng Thang hoi dng Cac, cung the. Mien Bac hoang lanh cd cai bien goi la Minh- hai, 
tiic la Ao Trdi. Cd con ca Ion tdi may nghin dam, chua ai biet no dai den bao nhieu, ten la 
Con. Cd con chim, ten la Bang, lung nhu nui Thai, canh to vung may che mot phuong trdi. 
Chim nay theo gid trot cuon nhu sung de ma len chin mudn dam cao, tuyet bong may- mu, 
doi trdi xanh biec, bay gid no mdi bay ve bien Nam. Mot con chim d ho nho cudi noi: do bay 
chi cao xa lam vay? Ta bay nhay bat qua vai chuc thudc cao, ngao du trong dam co bong co 
hao. Bay den the cung la dung muc lam roi. Con do bay chi cao xa lam vay? 

Do la cho phan biet giua ldn va nho. 

C. Co phu tri hieu nhat quan, hanh ti nhat huong, due hop nhat quan nang trung[iv] nhat quoc 
gia, ky tu thi da, diec nhuoc thu hi. Nhi Tong Vinh tu du nhien tieu chi, nhi bat gia khuyen, 
cu the nhi phi chi, nhi bat gia thu, dinh ho noi ngoai chi phan[v], bien ho vinh nhuc chi 
canh[vi], tu di hi. Bi ky u the, vi sat sat nhien da, tuy nhien du huu vi tho[vii] da. 

Phu Liet tu[viii] ngu phong nhi hanh lanh nhien[ix] thien da, tuan huu ngu nhat nhi hau phan. 
Bi u tri phuc[x] gia, vi sat sat nhien da. Thu tuy mien ho hanh du huu so dai gia da[xi]. 
Nhuoc phu thua thien dia chi chanh nhi ngu luc khi chi bien[xii], di du vo cung gia, bi tha d 
ho dai tai. Co viet: chi nhon vo ky, than nhon vo cong, thanh nhon vo danh[xiii]. 
DICH NGHIA: 

C. Cho nen, ke co tai tri du lam noi mot tudc quan, hanh hon ca mot lang, (thi) due (se) khdng 
khac nao mot vi vua duoc long tin cua ca nude, (neu biet) tu xem nhu dang lam vua kia vay. 
Nhung Vinh- tu nude Tong lai con cudi che do. Va, ddi co khen cung khong khich le, ma ddi 
co che cung khong ngan don duoc: ho da dinh rd cai phan cua trong ngoai, phan biet cai canh 
cua vinh nhuc roi day. Trong ddi, hang ngudi nhu the cung de thuong thay cd. Tuy vay, due 
cua ho cung chua duoc vung. 

Liet- tu cudi gio ma di, di mot each em ai nhe nhang, di tron mudi lam horn mdi ve. Do song 
trong cho chi phuc va ngudi nhu ong de thuong thay cd. Tuy khoi phai di, nhung con cho 
phai cho. 

Den nhu thuan theo cai chanh cua Trdi Dat, nuong theo cai bien cua luc khi ma dong choi 
trong c5i vo cung: thi do dau con phai cho doi cai gi nua. Cho nen ndi rang: bac chi nhon 
khdng thay cd minh, bac than nhon khong nho den cdng minh, bac thanh nhon khong nghi 
den ten minh. 

D. Nghieu nhuong thien ha u Hiia Do, viet: Nhat Nguyet xuat hi, nhi tudc hoa[xiv] bat tiic, ky 
u quang da bat diec nan ho? Thdi vu giang hi nhi du tarn quan, ky u trach da bat diec lao ho? 
Phu tu lap nhi thien ha tri, nhi nga du thi[xv] chi, ngd tu thi khuyet nhien. Thinh tri thien ha. 
Hiia Do viet: Tu tri thien ha, thien ha ky di tri da, nhi nga du dai[xvi] tu, ngo tuong vi danh 
ho? Danh gia, that chi tan da. Ngo tuong vi tan ho? Tieu lieu[xvii] sao u tham lam, bat qua 



nhat chi. Yen thu[xviii] am ha, bat qua man phuc. Quy huu ho quan. Du vo so dung thien ha 

vi. Bao nhan tuy bat tri bao, thi chuc bat viet ton tro nhi dai chi hi. 

DICH NGHIA: 

D.Vua Nghieu muon nhuong thien ha cho Hiia- Do, noi: Mat troi mat trang da moc, ma 

khong dut duoc, nhin bong duoc ha chang kho coi lam sao? Mua mua da do xuong, ma con di 

tuoi nuoc, the la chang lao cong vo ich hay sao? Nay neu phu tu len ngoi, thien ha at duoc tri. 

Toi con ngoi lam than tuong chi nua. Toi tu thay rat kem. Vay, xin moi ngai len tri thien ha. 

Hiia Do noi: Ngai tri thien ha, thi thien ha duoc tri. Toi con the Ngai lam chi, toi cau danh hay 

sao? Danh la khach cua That. Toi muon lam khach sao? Chim tieu lieu dau 6 rung sau, chang 

qua mot nhanh la vua. Chuot dong xuong nuoc song dai, chang qua day bung la du. Xin tra lai 

cho ngai do. Thien ha ay, toi khong dung lam gi ca. Nguoi dau bep du khong xong viec bep, 

nguoi chu te cung khong vuot phan ma the cho do duoc. 

E. Kien Ngo van u Lien Thuc viet: Ngo van ngon u Tiep Du dai nhi vo duong[xix], vang nhi 

bat phan. Ngo kinh bo[xx] ky ngon, du Ha Han nhi vo cue da, dai huu kinh thinh[xxi] bat can 

nhon tinh yen. Lien Thuc viet:" ky ngon vi ha tai". Viet: Dieu Co Xa chi son, huu than nhon 

cu yen, co phu nhuoc bang tuyet, nao uoc[xxii] nhuoc xu nii[xxiii] bat thuc ngu coc, hap 

phong am 16, thua van khi, ngu phi long nhi du ho, tu hai chi ngoai, ky than ngung, su vat bat 

ti le, nhi nien coc thuc. Ngo di thi cuong nhi bat tin da. 

Lien Thuc viet: Nhien. Co gia vo di ho van chuong chi quan, lung gia vo di dur ho chung co 

chi thinh. Khoi duy hinh hai huu lung manh tai, phu tri diec hviu chi, thi ky ngon da, du thoi 

nhii[xxiv] da. Chi nhon da, chi due da, tuong bang bac van vat di vi nhat, the ky ho loan, thuc 

te te yen di thien ha vi su. Chi nhon da, vat mac chi thuong. dai tarn khe thien nhi bat nich. dai 

nan, kim thach luu, tho son tieu, nhi bat nhiet. thi, ky tran cau ti khuong[xxv] tuong du dao 

chu Nghieu Thuan gia da. Thuc khang di vat vi su! 

Tong nhon tu chuong phu nhi thich chu Viet. Viet nhon doan phat van than, vo so dung chi. 

Nghieu tu thien ha chi dan, binh hai noi chi chanh, vang kien tu tu Dieu Co Ta chi son phan 

thuy chi duong, yeu nhien[xxvi] tang ky thien ha yen." 

DICH NGHIA: 

E. Kien Ngo noi vdi Lien- Thuc: Toi nghe Tiep Du noi chuyen Ion lac khong tuong, co loi di 

ma khong co loi ve. . . khien toi kinh so, ong noi nhu song Ha song Han khong cung tan, rat la 

xa xoi, khong can vdi nhan- tinh. . .Lien Thuc hoi:" Noi nhung gi?"- " Noi rang tren nui Dieu- 

C6 Ta co than nhon o, da thit nhu bang tuyet, dang dieu mem yeu nhu nguoi con gai chua 

chong. Khong an nam loai thoc, chi hop gio, uong suong, nuong theo hoi may, coi rong ma 

bay ngao du ngoai bon bien. Ngung than lai thi co the lam cho van vat khong dau 6m hu hoai, 

lua thoc lai duoc mua. Toi cho do la loi noi cuong, nen khong tin." 

Lien Thuc noi:" Phai! Ke dui lay gi de xem thay duoc cai dep cua van- hoa: ke diec lay gi de 

nghe duoc tieng chuong tieng trong. Ha chi co hinh hai moi co dui diec dau. . . tri cung co dui 

diec. Theo loi noi ay thi nguoi nay cung the. Ke nhu nguoi ay, due ay cung van vat ho chuy 

di lam cai viec cua thien ha. Nguoi ay khong vat nao hai dang. Nuoc ca dung troi ma khong 

lam ho chet chim duoc, nang ca chay mem sat da, chay nui thieu dat cung khong lam cho ho 

chet nong duoc. Do bui bam. Can ba cua than nhon ay cung due thanh duoc hang nguoi cua 

Nghieu Thuan. Ai dau lai khiing di lam cong viec cho ngoai vat! 

Nguoi nuoc Tong buon mu Chuong phu, sang nuoc Viet. Nguoi nuoc Viet thi cat toe ngan va 

xam minh, khong dung mu ay lam gi. Nghieu tri tram ho trong thien ha, binh tri duoc trong 

nuoc, ben sang qua nui Dieu- Co Ta de ra mat bon Thay. Ho co cai ve sau xa lam sao ma 

Nghieu Thuan quen mat thien ha cua minh. 

G. Hue- tu vi Trang tu viet: Nguy vuong di nga dai ho chi chung, nga tho chi thanh, nhi that 

ngu thach. di thanh thuy tuong, ky kien bat nang tu cu da. Phau chi di vi bieu, tac ho lac vo so 

dung. Phi bat hieu nhien dai da. Ngo vi ky vo dung nhi phau chi. Trang tu viet: Phu tu co 

chuyet u dung dai hi. Tong nhon huu thien vi bat quy thu[xxvii] chi duoc gia, the the di binh 



tich khoang vi sir. Khach van chi, thinh mai ky phuong bach kim. Tu toe nhi muu viet: nga 

the the vi binh tich khoang bat qua so kim, kim nhat trieu nhi chiic ky bach kim, thinh cut chi." 

Khach dac chi, di thuyet Ngo vuong. Viet huu nan, Ngo vuong su chi tuong. . . Dong du Viet 

nhon thuy chien, dai bai Viet nhon, liet dia nhi phong chi. 

Nang bat quy thu nhat da. Hoac di phong, hoac bat nhien u binh tich khoang, tac so dung chi 

di da. Kim tu huu ngu thach chi ho, ha bat lu di vi dai ton nhi phu ho lac vo so dung. Tac phu 

tu du huu bong[xxviii] chi tarn da phu. 

G. Hue- tu goi Trang tu, noi: Nguy vuong tang tdi mot giong dua to. Toi trong no co trai nang 

den nam thach. Dung no dung nude, no nang, khong cat nhac duoc. Bo no ra lam cai bau, thi 

lai khong con dung duoc cho nao. Dau phai no khong to Ion, nhung vi cho no la vo dung nen 

toi dap bo no. 

Trang tu noi: The la phu tu vung ve cho dai dung no. Nude Tong co nguoi kheo che duoc 

mdn thuoc chua ran nut da tay, doi doi chuyen lam nghe uom to. Co nguoi hay biet, den xin 

mua phuong thuoc do mot tram luong vang. Anh ta ben nhom than- toe ban rang:" Nha ta doi 

doi lam nghe uom to, loi khong hon so vang do. Nay mot mai ma duoc tram vang, xin de cho 

ban." 

Nguoi khach duoc phuong thuoc, dem thuyet vua Ngo. Nuoc Viet co nan, vua Ngo sai anh 

lam tuong. Nham mua dong, thuy chien voi nguoi Viet, nguoi Viet dai bai. Vua Ngo ben cat 

dat ma phong thuong anh ta. 

Cung thoi cung mot phuong thuoc tri ran nut da tay ma mot nguoi duoc thuong phong, mot 

nguoi khong ta khoi cai nghe uom to: do la tai cho biet dung ma khac nhau vay. 

Nay phu tu co trai dua nang den nam thach, sao khong tinh ditng no lam trai noi tha qua song 

qua ho, ma lo chi ho vo bau tan, khong co cho dung? Thi ra vi cai long cua phu tu hep hoi 

chua thong dat do. 

H. Hue tu vi Trang tu viet: Ngo huu dai tho, nhon vi chi Vu. Ky dai bon ung thung[xxix] nhi 

bat trung thang mac. Ky tieu chi quyen khuc, nhi bat truing quy cu. Laph chi do, tuong gia bat 

co. Kim tu chi ngon dai nhi vo dung, chiing so dong khu da. 

Trang tu viet: Tu doc bat kien ly tinh[xxx] ho, ti than nhi phuc, di hau ngao gia, dong tay dieu 

luong, bat ti cao ha, tning u co tich, tu u vong vo. Kim phu thai nguu, ky dai nhuoc thuy thien 

chi van, thu nang vi dai hi, nhi bat nang chap thu. Kim tu huu dai tho, hoan ky vo dung. Ha 

bat tho chi u vo ha huu chi huong[xxxi], quang mac[xxxii] chi da, bang hoang ho vo vi ky 

trac, tieu dieu ho tarn ngoa[xxxiii] ky ha, bat yeu can phu, vat vo hai gia. Vo so kha dung, an 

sokhon kho tai! 

I. Hue- tu goi Trang tu, noi:" Toi co coi cay to, nguoi ta goi no la cay Vu. Goc no loi lorn 

khong dung day muc. Nhanh nhoc no thi cong queo khong dung quy cu. dem trong no o 

duong cai, nguoi tho moc cung khong them nhin. Nay loi noi cua ong to Ion ma vo dung, nen 

nguoi nguoi deu khong them nghe." 

Trang tu noi: " Ong rieng chang thay con meo rung do sao? Con nguoi minh dung nup, rinh 

vat di rong, nhay tay nhay dong, khong hiem cao thap, ket trong do bay, chet noi luoi rap. 

Den nhu con thai- nguu, Ion nhu vang may che mot phuong troi, ke ra cung la to that, nhung 

cung khong bat duoc chuot. Nay ong co cay to, lai so no vo dung. Sao khong dem no trong 

noi tich mich, givia canh dong rong bao la. Khach ngao du khong lam gi, ngoi nghi dudi goc 

no, khach tieu dieu nam ngu dudi bong no. No se khong chet yeu vi bua riu, cung khong so 

vat nao lam hai. Khong co cho nao co the dung duoc, thi khon kho tu dau ma den duoc?" 



Phu dieu duong gidc: gio trot Ion, xody trdn nhu hinh cai sung de rung. 

[ii] Xich yen: Xich, la cai ho nho; yen, la loai chim se. 

[Hi] Bien: a day la suphdn biet. Qudch Tuong chu doan nay, cho rang khong co Ion nho, vi 

neu " moi vat deu biet yen voi cai Tdnh cua Trai phu cho minh, thi sao co buon lo vi cho 

khong dong nhau. " Do la ong gidng sai voi ban y cua Trang- tu. 



Xem ky van mach cua chuang nay, ta thdy rang cho ma Trang- tu bdo " con ve va con chim 

cuu nho khong lam sao hieu duac cdi hanh dong cua chim Bang", thi cung nhu a thien Thu 

Thiiy ong bdo" con ech nam day gieng lam gi thdy duac cdi rong Ian cua be Dong". 

Mot doqn van sau trong thien nay, cho ma Kien- Ngo ke chuyen cua Tiep- Du bdo rang" dai 

nhi vo- duang", cho ma Hue- tu che lai noi cua Trang- tu " dai nhi vo dung", tire cung la cho 

ma Lao tu trong Dao- Due- Kinh bdo" ha si van Dao, dai tieu chi" vdy. 

Huong chi truac day ong cung da noi: tieu tri bat cap dai tri ; tieu nien bat cap dai nien, trieu 

khudn bat tri hoi soc ; hue co bat tri xudn thu, thi that la chu y cua ong ro rang hit sire. Cho 

nen, lai chu cua Qudch Tuang, that la mot su sai lam to tat vdy, vi da gidng nghich lai vai y 

chdnh cua ho Trang. Cdu noi nay cua Lao tu rat can de cho ta tu nhdc nha lay khi cam but 

binh gidng tu tuang trong Nam- Hoa- Kinh: " cang muon lam cho that sang, lai cang lam cho 

ra toil" Vi vdy, it binh gidng chung nao cang tot, ma dung binh gidng gi cd, cang hay! doc 

Trang- tie can nhdt la doc ngay Trang- tie ma dung di qua ede nha binh gidng truac, hodc neu 

di qua ede nha binh gidng truac, hay quen phut ho di, de di ngay vdo chdnh van cua Trang- 

tie. 

fivj Nhi doc la Ndng: co tu hai chu nay dung Ian nhau. 

Trung: la tin cay duac, duac tin nhiem. 

[v] Noi Ngoqi chi phdn: day la chi ve cdi Ta ben trong, va ngoqi vat ben ngoai. 

[vi] Vinh cua ta, nhuc cua nguai: Vinh cho ta, tuc la nhuc cho nguai. 

[vii] Tho, la dung vung: cho goi la" chi dire cung chua duac vung". day la muon noi rang: 

nguai nhu Vinh tu chua du cho ta nguang mo vdy. 

[viii] Liet- tu: nguai nuac Trinh, ten la Ngu- Khdu. 

[ix] Lanh- nhien: nhe nhang em di 

[x] Phuc: tuc la khong co gi tra ngqi cd. triphuc, la muon noi rang Liet- tu cai gio ma tuyet 

khong co vat nao tra ngqi su hoat dong cua ong cd, ong tha ho tai lui thong thd. 

[xi] Cdu nay" thu tuy mien ho hanh, du huu sa dai gid da" cung vai cdu tren" tuy nhien du 

huu vi tho da" deu cung mot dungy: chuaphdi la dang nguang mo, la da den mire hoan toan. 

[xii] Luc khi: la khi Am, khi Duong, Gio, Mua, Toi, Sdng(Am, Duong, Phong, Vu, Hoi, Minh). 

Bien phdi doc la Bien. Xua hai chit nay dung Ian nhau. Chu" Chdnh" day, la cua Am, 

Duang(Thien- Dia; Can- khon) dung chi huy cdi bien cua luc khi... (nam gieng moi cua tat cd 

hien tuang trong Trai Ddt). 

[xiii] Vo ky, vo cong, vo danh: Thoi- tuy en cho rang " Vo cong, vo danh " la " khong lap cong, 

khong lap danh ". Gidng gidi nhu the, khong on neu khong noi la sai. Nhdn the mai co nguai 

hieu theo do va cho rang cdi hoc cua Trang- tu la cdi hoc yem the, hay xudt the. 

Neu hieu cdu" vo cong" la " khong lap cong", thi cdu" vo ky" cung phdi co nghia la " khong 

lap minh " hay sao va nhu the nghia no la gi? khi van phdi nhdt qudn, va cdu nay phdi hieu 

la" khong co minh", " khong co cong", " khong co danh", nghia la khong nghiden minh. Bdc 

duac Dao, khong con co thdy minh nua(tuc la cdi tieu nga cua minh); khong con thdy co 

minh nua, thi lam sao con nghi den cong minh, va danh minh. 

Lao tu cung co noi" cong toqi nhdn thodi", " vi nhu bat thi", " cong thanh phdt cu" ...(nen 

viec, lui than, lam ma khong cay cong, thanh cong roi khong a lai... tire la khong nghi den su 

luu danh). 

Nhu vdy, khong the goi Lao hoc la cdi hoc yem the hay xudt the... vi" khong lap cong", " 

khong lap danh". 

Nen biet ro rang chu truong cieu cdnh cua hai hoc thuyet ay la cdi hoc" huy en dong vat nga", 

khong con thdy co Trong co Ngoai, co Ta co Nguai nua. Cho nen khong the hoii nguai ddc 

Dao la nguai xudt the hay yem the, la vi doi vai ho nguai vai ta la mot, Ngoqi va noi la mot, 

xa hoi va cd nhdn la mot. Cung nhu cd va nuac la mot, khong the khong co nuac ma cd song. 

Cho nen sa di con nguai phdi lo cho xa hoi la vi khong co xa hoi, cd nhdn khong sao phdt 

trien duac cdi song cua minh. Lo cho xa hoi khong phdi la phdn su ma la le tat nhien phdi lo, 



khong lo khong dang, hai le ay chdng chit dinh liu vai nhau, khong sao red nhau duac. Cho 

nen co the hieu rang: noi la lo cho den, ma chinh lalo cho minh; hoac trdi lai, noi la lo cho 

minh, ma chinh la lo cho den do. 

Cho nen, noi rang cdi hoc cua Lao Trang la cdi hoc yem the, tire la chua hieu ro cdi chu 

trucmg" huyen- dong vat ngd" cua ede ong- vdy ch&phdn- doi chi do hien hanh cua thai dai, 

phdn doi Nho Mac, phdn doi cdi Dao huu- vi da lam thong kho nhdn dan... khong phdi do la 

mot each tieu cue lo khang- kien- hoa xa hoi la gi? 

Van di nhdp the xudt the a day da ducrc dat ra. Va dinhiin, tuong doi ma noi thi Lao cung 

nhu Trang diu chu trucmg su thuc hien cdi Dao nen minh truac hit, tru&c khi nghidin viec 

ra lo giup dai. Su thuc hien ban than la mot van de can co su co lap va tinh tarn, cho nen di 

nhien la phdi thien vi dai song cd nhdn nhiiu hem. " Tu gidc nhi gidc tha " cua Nhd Phat, 

cung nhu" ditu nhdn vi bon" cua Nho gia, phdi nang ve suyin tinh va lo ve dai song ban 

than truac van de xa hoi. 

Gido su A. W. Watts, trong quyin The Way of Zen lai cho rang:" Dao gido la cong viec cua 

nhung nguai Ian tudi, ddc biet la nhung ki da tu bo cdi den hoqt dong xa hoi. Su tu bo den 

song hoat dong xa hoi ay chung to rang ho da co di den duac mot su gidi thodt noi tarn roi 

doi vai nhung le loi suy tu cung hanh dong gia tqo cua xa hoi ben ngodi. Dao gido, vi vdy la 

mot su deo duoi theo mot thu hieu biet tu nhien, chu khong con thuoc ve cdi hieu biet wac le 

gia tqo theo xa hoi nua, cdi thong hieu true tiep vai le song that, ma khong phdi trdi qua su 

trung gian cua moty tuang tinh than theo net gqch va tuong trung. " 

fxivj Tuac hoa: cay dude, mot dom lua nho. 

[xv] Thi: la lam chu. Lai cung co nghia la tuang than, la nguai co chuc nhiem nhung khong 

lam gi cd. 

a day ta co the hieu la hu- vi, mot dia vi tuang trung nhu motpho tuang than vdy thoi. 

fxvij Dai: thay the. 

[xvii] Tieu lieu: chim nho. 

[xviii] Yen thu: chuot dong. 

[xix] Dai nhi vo- duang: Ian ma khong dung vai thuc te. Dai ngon, tuc la lai noi khodc. 

[xx] Kinh- bo: Bo nghia la sa; kinh- bo la kinh sa. 

[xxi] Kinh- thinh: chu dinh a day, phdi doc la thinh, co nghia la xa xoi, dieu vai. 

[xxii] Ndo- uac: dien mqo dep de, lai cung co nghia la ve nguai yeu dieu, mem mqi, diu dang. 

Chu ndo ciing viet la xuac. 

[xxiii] Xu tu: doc la xu nu{tuc la nguai con gdi chua chdng). 

[xxiv] doc la nhu(thay vi nu). 

[xxv] Ti- khuang: ba lua, trdu. Tuc la can ba. 

[xxvi] Yeu- nhien: phong thai sdu xa. 

[xxvii] Bat quy thu: khong lam ran nut da tay. 

[xxviii] Bong: Bong chi tarn la cdi long hep hoi chua thong dat. 

[xxix] ling thiing: loi lorn, go ghe, gut mat. 

[xxx] Ly tinh: tuc la mot thu meo rung. 

[xxxi] Vo ha huu chi huemg: tuc la cho tich mich. 

[xxxii] Qudng mac: rong Ion 

[xxxiii] Tarn ngoa: nam ngu. 

NAM HOA KINH - TONG BINH : 

Ve quan niem Dao va Diic thi Trang tu - va Lao tu - dong vdi nhau. Nhung ve quan niem hanh 

phuc, thi Trang tu gian minh mot each ro rang khiic chiet hon trong thien Tieu Dieu Du nay. 

Trang tu cho rang tat ca muon vat, vat nao ciing co cai Due cua no, do cai Dao noi minh ma 

phat huy ra. Chu Due o day khong co cai nghia thong thuong ve luan ly nhu phai Nho gia da 

dung, ma no dung de am chi cai Tanh tu nhien cua moi vat, tuc la cho ma Lao tu goi la" kien 

To" va Nha Phat goi la " kien Tanh"." Tanh tu nhien" day, hie la cho ma Quach Tuong bao " 



bat dac bat nhien"(kh6ng vay khong duoc), nghia la cai" bat dac di" ciia moi sir moi vat. . . 
nhu liia khong the khong nong, gia khong the khong lanh. Cai dong tac cua Dire rat tu nhien, 
khong co cudng, nen goi no la " V6 vi". 

Neu biet thuan theo tanh tu nhien ay ma song, thi hanh phiic co ngay lien trade mat, khong 
can cau canh dau khac ngoai minh. 



;;: ;]; * 



Tieu- dieu, la "tu do tu tai", la " tu do song theo cai song tit nhien ciia minh" ma khong phai 

mo phong theo ai khac, deo bong tham muon cai ngoai Tanh Phan ciia minh. Tieu Dieu Du, la 

rong choi vui thich theo y minh, vi da biet" thich ky tu an", chii khong nhu ngudi ddi " xa ky 

thich nhon"[ii], dieu ma Trang tu rat cue lire phan doi d thien Dai- Tdng- Su[iii]. 

Nhu vay, ta thay rang, cai Tu Do ma Trang tu de xuong la mot thii tu do tuyet doi, khong le 

thuoc vao mot dieu kien nao ngoai cai Ban Tanh ciia minh ca. Song theo minh la Tu Do, la 

Hanh phuc; song theo ke khac, la No le, la Dau kho. 

Dai y thien Tieu- Dieu- Du, co the tarn chia lam nam diem chanh nhu sau day: *** 

I. Ldn va Nho khong thudng: 

Nghia la cai Lon cai Nho khong phai la dieu tuyet doi, bat bien, ma thuc ra, la mot le tuong 
doi: lon hon cai nho, nho hon cai lon. Lon va Nho deu la nhung le vo thudng. 
Nhu ca Con, von la mot thir ca nho ma Trang tir cho no la mot giong ca lon khong biet may 
nghin dam; chim Bang, von la chim Phung, ciing dau phai la mot vat cue dai, the ma Trang tir 
lai cho no la mot vat cue dai, co cai lung lon khong biet may nghin dam, con canh ciia no thi 
nhu vang may che khuat mot phuong trdi. Do la cho dung y dac biet ciia Trang tir dung mot 
but phap cue ky huyen tudng, bien hoa bat thudng de chi ro su vo thudng ciia cai Lon va cai 
Nho. Do la cho ma d thien Thu- Thiiy ndi:" lay cho bat te ma xem, thi se thay vat nao cung 
ldn ca(doi vdi vat nho hon no) va vat nao cung nho ca(doi vdi vat ldn hon no); biet Trdi Dat 
nhu mot hot thoc, biet may long la hon niii." Nhu vay, thi Nho sao lai thudng chang Ldn, ma 
ldn sao lai thudng chang nho duoc. Nhan thay cai cho nho ciia minh, ma ham muon deo bong 
mai cai phan ngoai minh, sao bang nhan thay cho ldn ciia minh va cho no la dii de ma" thich 
ky tu an"? biet ro duoc le ay, thi se bo duoc cai long tham- due ciia sir phan biet trong ngoai, 
bo duoc cai long tham muon nhung gi ngoai minh va khong rung minh nua[iv]. 

II. Ldn, thi hop vdi cho ldn, nen khong thay minh la ldn; 
Nho, thi hop vdi cho Nho, nen khong thay minh la nho. 

Tire nhu chim Bang, mot con vat rat ldn, tat phai ddi sang bien Nam, bay len cao chin muon 
dam va bay tron sau thang tradng khong nghi. . . Trang tir da noi:: Nude khong sau thi khong 
siic cho thuyen ldn, do mot chung nude xuong cai ho nho, lay mot cong co ma lam thuyen tha 
len thi thuyen tu noi, neu lai lay cai chung nude ay ma tha len lam thuyen, thi thuyen ay phai 
mac can. La tai sao? Tai nude khong sau, ma thuyen thi ldn. Ldp gio khong day, thi khong 
siic chd noi canh ldn ciia chim Bang." 

Quach tir Huyen luan ve diem nay co noi:" Neu khong phai la minh hai thi khong dii cho cho 
than con ca Con day trd, neu khong co chin muon dam cao thi sao dii chd cai canh to tudng 
ciia chim Bang. Ha phai do vi hieu ky ma ve cho ra chuyen them dau! He vat ldn, phai sanh ra 
noi cho ldn, va cho ldn tat nhien ciing sanh ra noi cho ldn, va cho ldn tat nhien ciing sanh ra 
vat ldn do. Ly co tu nhien, dau phai can lo cho no khong duoc nhu vay!" ong lai noi: "Canh 
ldn nen kho cir dong trong cho hep, cho nen phai vuot tren chin muon dam cao, mdi co dii 
cho ma cir dong. Da co canh ay ma lai quyet d dudi thap, hay bay len vai chuc thudc cao nhu 
con chim cuu, co duoc khong? Do deu la cho" bat dac bat nhien"(khdng vay khong dang), 
chii dau phai vui sudng gi ma lam ra nhu the dau!" 

Vay, ldn thi thuan theo cho ldn, khong tu xem la ldn ma sinh kieu; nho thi thuan theo cho 
nho, khong tu xem la nho ma deo bong ham muon, nhu " con chim cuu. . . bay vut len du cay 
phuong, du bay khong tdi thi roi xuong dat" dau can phai ham muon cai rong ldn ciia chim 
Bang. Nghia that ro rang! 



Quach- Tu- Huyen noi: "Neu biet du vai tanh phan cua minh, thi tuy minh Ian nhu chim 
Bang, cung khong tu cho la Ian ma cho minh quy han chim nho kia, ma con chim nho kia 
cung khong cho minh la nho ma ham muon bay den Ao Troi(thien- tri) lam gi. Nen chi noi 
den cai Vinh cua chim Bang, hay noi den cai them muon cua con chim nho(de kip vai chim 
Bang) deu la noi thua ca. Lon, Nho, tuy khac nhau, nhung tarn trang tieu- du(nghia la tu do) 
van mot. 

Tom lai, chim Bang o thien tri, thi chinh ciing nhu chim cuu o cay du, cay phuong. . . " dau 
vua vai do". Chim bang, khong tu xem minh la Ion, chim cuu khong tu xem minh la nho, nen 
Ion khong kieu vai nho, nho khong deo bong ham muon cai Ion. Tham due nho do, tu nhien 
khong con nua. Tham due ma khong con co nua, thi hanh phuc co ngay lien do, vi hanh phuc 
la song duoc cai song cua minh, song toai sinh trong cai tu tanh cua minh vay. 
III. Tho va Yeu: 

Dieu mong uoc Ion nhat cua nguoi doi, la duoc song lau. Cho nen mai cho cai song bay tarn 
tram nam cua Banh To la tho, ma ao uoc, them thuong! La tai sao? La tai cai so kiep cua con 
nguoi, chi tram nam la han, nen moi deo bong ham muon song duoc nhu Banh To va cho do 
la tho. Gia su ma ai ai cung deu song duoc nhu Banh To, thi cai khoang bay tram nam lai se 
khong con du cho la tho nua. Nhu ta da thay, long ham muon con nguoi so di co, la khi nao 
khong biet an theo so phan cua minh ma dem tarn deo duoi theo so phan cua nhung vat ngoai 
minh va khac minh. 

That vay, vi khong ai song den duoc cai tuoi cua Banh To, nen moi cho cai song ay la tho ma 
them muon. Banh To, trai lai, neu cung bat chuoc nhu ta ma khong biet an voi Tanh Phan cua 
minh la song bay tram nam, lai deo bong muon song duoc cai song cua cay minh linh thi tat 
cung cho cai han bay tram nam cua minh khong du cho la tho, ma song duoc nhu cay minh 
linh moi la tho. Cay minh linh, neu lai bat chuoc Banh To, khong tu xem minh la tho, lai deo 
bong ham muon song theo cai song cua cay dai xuan; cay dai xuan lai muon song duoc nhu 
cai song cua Trai Bat. . .thi ra vat nao cung khong tho ca, ma vat nao cung deu yeu ca! Cho 
nen noi rang, neu cii tham muon song ngoai cai tanh phan cua minh, thi cai song cua Banh To 
doi voi cay dai xuan, khong khac nao" cai song cua diia tre chet trong noi" vay. 
Neu lay cai song tram nam la han cua ta lam muc thuoc, thi con ve sau mua xuan sanh, mua 
ha chet, tai nam mai sam no toi tan. . . deu la vat yeu ca! Cai song mot mua cua con ve sau, va 
cai song co mot buoi cua tai nam mai, doi voi ta tuy chi la cai song trong khoang khac rat 
ngan ngiii, ma doi voi no, van cung la mot kiep song, nhu mot kiep song tram nam cua ta vay. 
Doi voi con nguoi, duoc song tram nam la tho; thi doi voi tai nam mai, song duoc mot buoi 
cung la tho, ma doi voi con ve sau, song duoc mot mua, deu la tho ca: chung no duoc song 
den cai muc cung cua kiep song cua chung. Con nhu cay dai xuan song mot xuan la tarn nghin 
nam, mot thu la tarn nghin nam, gia nhu no chi song duoc co bon mua, nghia la ba muon hai 
nghin nam, thi doi voi ta, sao khong cho do la tho duoc, nhung doi voi cai kiep song cua no 
thi no chi song duoc co mot tuoi ma thoi, nghia la chi song duoc co bon mua; song duoc tarn 
nghin nam, phai chang doi voi ta, la rat tho, nhung doi voi chinh cay dai xuan, thi no chi song 
duoc co mot mua ma thoi, song rat yeu vay! 

The thi can cii vao su dai ngan cua thai gian khong the duoc xem la tho hay yeu. Chang qua 
nhu vat Ion a cho Ion, vat nho o cho nho. Vay, tho, yeu cung nhu Ion, nho chi la mot danh tu 
doi dai, tu no khong co nghia gi la that ca, that mot each tuyet doi. Khong nhin ra ngoai, ma 
chi nhin vao trong, nghia la moi vat, neu biet "cac an ky phan", "thich ky tu an", thi van de 
Ion nho, tho yeu se khong con thanh van de lam cho long minh thac mac nua. 



*** 



IV. Huyen nghia cua Tieu- Dieu: 

Moi vat, neu deu biet tu du voi cai tanh phan cua minh, thi du a trong xa hoi, phai o vao dia vi 
nao, cung khong tu xem la khong du, de deo bong tham muon cai Tanh Phan ngoai minh. 
Nhu " ke co tai tri du de lam noi mot tuoc quan, hanh han ca mot lang, thi due se khong khac 



nao mot vi vua duoc long tin ciia ca nude, neu biet ty xem minh nhu dang lam vua kia vay." 
Tuy phan giong nhau, neu moi nguoi deu tron vdi cai phan ciia minh. Chi va Hanh ciia hai 
ben, bat qua nhu vat Ion nho, tho yeu ma thoi. 

ke biet nhan thay due cua minh ngang voi bac Vua chua nhu chiic quan nho kia, tuy la ke 
sang suot " thich ky tu an", hon nguoi doi mot buc, nhung cho " lap due" chua viing. La vi 
hay con thay co cong. 

Vinh tu nude Tong, " doi khen cung khong khich le, doi che cung khong ngan don duoc", tiic 
la nguoi vuot len tren du luan, khong con no le den thi phi ben ngoai nua, the ma cho lap due 
cua ong cung chua duoc vung. La vi tuy da biet than nhien doi voi du luan, nhung con de cho 
doi biet duoc ma khen voi che. Do la hang nguoi con de lai " danh". ay la hang nguoi nhu vua 
Nghieu, va Hiia Do. 

Tre hai hang do, lai con mot hang nua, la hang nguoi nhu Liet tii, hang" coi gio ma di, di mot 
each em ai nhe nhang". d day Trang tu muon am chi nhung bac tu dao da dat den trang thai 
huyen hoa trong nhung luc thien toa hay tinh toa. Trong nhung luc ay, ho da dat den trang 
thai" tieu dieu" vi da huyen dong cung voi cai song thieng lieng cua ho, tiic la Dao. Nhung, 
chi co mot luc thoi, nen moi noi" tuy phai di, nhung con phai co cho cho". Liet- tu tuy" coi 
gio ma bay, thong tha tu do", nhung con phai doi co gio moi bay duoc, nhu chim Bang doi co 
gio trot noi len, moi" nuong theo do ma bay len chin muon dam cao". Ke nhu Liet tu, duoc 
huyen dong cung Dao, tuy tieu dieu duoc, ma cung phai doi luc huyen hoa moi duoc tieu 
dieu. Tu do(tieu dieu) ma con doi luc huyen hoa moi tieu dieu thi chua phai that la nguoi da 
dat den coi tieu dieu tuyet doi(tu do tuyet doi). La vi ho khong phai luon luon" khong con 
thay co minh"(v6 ky) niia. Chi co buc" chi nhon vo ky, than nhon vo cong, thanh nhon vo 
danh" moi that la ke da dat den cai trang thai huyen dong mot each vinh vien ma khong con 

phai cho doi mot dieu kien gi khac. 

*** 

Lam each nao de dat den trang thai huyen hoa? Phai biet " thuan theo cai chanh cua Troi Dat, 
nuong theo cai bien cua luc khi ma lai qua trong coi vo cung." 

Nghia la gi the? Troi Dat la noi ve Am Duong. Am Duong co sat nhau, tranh dau nhau, 
nhung khi duoc cai Chanh cua no, tiic la Dao, thi no se duoc dieu hoa. Dao, tiic la cai Chanh 
cua Troi Dat, dung tren Am Duong, va bao gio cung co cai phan su dieu chinh lai nhung gi 
thai qua do su tranh chap cua cap mau thuan ay gay nen, va khong cho cai nao Ian cai nao ca. 
Thuan theo cai Chanh cua Troi Dat duoc roi, thi tha ho" nuong theo cai bien cua luc khi" 
nghia la biet " di bat bien"(Dao) de ma " ling van bien" trong cuoc" van hoa" cua Troi Dat. 
Cai Chanh(Dao) ay noi ta, nha Phat goi la tanh, Lao tu goi la To va o day goi la Tanh Tu 
nhien. 

Quach Tuong giai nghia cau nay noi:" Troi Dat lay van vat lam cai the, con van vat lay cai tu 
nhien(tuc la Dao) lam cai chanh. Khong lam ma van duoc tu nhien, moi goi la Tu Nhien. Tiic 
nhu chim Bang, bay cao la so nang cua no; chim cuu, bay thap la so nang cua no; tai nam 
mai, song trong mot buoi mai, la so nang cua no; cay dai xuan, song dai dang dac, la so nang 
cua no. Bay nhieu cai do, deu la " so nang" cua tu nhien, khong phai" so nang" cua su lam cua 
minh; khong lam ma tu nhien duoc cai so nang ay, do goi la Chanh. Boi vay, " thuan theo cai 
Chanh cua Troi Dat", tiic la thuan theo cai Tanh tu nhien(Dao) cua van vat, thi dau phai can 
cho doi cai gi nua ma huyen hoa voi tao vat. Duoc nhu the, moi goi la nguoi chi diic, tiic la 
nguoi da duoc tieu dieu trong su huyen dong cua Day va Do. Neu con nho (cai gi o ngoai) 
nua, roi sau moi duoc tieu dieu, tiic nhu Liet tii tuy" coi gio ma di mot each em ai diu dang" 
nhung con phai doi co gio moi bay di duoc, thi Diic chua hoan toan. Huong chi la chim Bang. 
Duy, cung voi van vat hon hop lam mot roi, va nuong theo cuoc dai bien ciia Troi Dat ma 
rong choi trong coi vo cung thi moi goi duoc la bac" thuong thong" hay la " dai thong". 
Loi chu giai tren day ciia Quach Tuong, that ro rang het siic. Bac chi nhan la ke da huyen 
dong cung tao vat roi, cho nen ban nga khong con nua. o thien Te- Vat- Luan, Trang tii muon 



ldi cua Tut- Ky de noi len chan ly ay:" Ta da mat ban nga roi!" Ban nga ma khong con thi 

Thien- Tanh hien ra[v], co khac nao Mat trdi (Thien Tanh hay Bao) bi may(Ban nga) che ma: 

he may tan di thi ty nhien Mat trdi hien ra sang to. Khi Thien Tanh hien ra la vi Ban nga da 

mat, nen goi la "chi nhon vo ky", do la duoc cho "dai thuan", hay la "duoc cai Chanh cua tanh 

mang". 

"Thuan theo cai Chanh cua Trdi Bat", tiic la " thuan theo cai Tanh tu nhien cua minh"[vi]. 

Quan trong nhat, la gin giu cai tanh ay, dung de no lu ma vi tu due, dung de cho hoan canh 

huyen hoac, thay doi. . . Mot cai cay, tu hie dam mong, nay choi, tro la, dom bong. . . nhung 

cuoc bien dong tuy nhieu, nhung cai Song cua cay van luon luon co mot, va toan man tu dau 

chi cuoi. 

Bac chi nhan vi da thuc hien duoc trang thai " vo ky" nen " thuan vdi Tanh tu nhien cua 

minh" va du luu chuyen theo cuoc bien dong bat tan cua Trdi Bat, van khong lam mat Ban- 

tanh duy nhat cua minh.[vii] 

Bdi vay, noi minh, thi lo ma thuc hien su huyen dong cung tao vat, khong phan trong va 

ngoai, ta va ngudi nua, khong thay ldn nho, tho yeu; con noi vat, thi biet de cho van vat, vat 

nao cung duoc " an theo cho da an bai cua chung" nen khong ep buoc ai phai theo minh, nghia 

la lay minh ma danh gia su phai quay cua ngudi. B6 goi la " chi nhon vo ky". 



*** 



V. Huu dung va vo dung: 

Trdi Bat sinh van vat, de cho moi vat song cai song cua no, chii khong phai sinh ra de cho 

ngudi dung no. Bung duoc thi dung, khong dung duoc thi bo. Goi la huu dung hay vo dung la 

sai. Thuc ra, tu no, khong co vat gi goi la huu dung hay vo dung ca. 

Nhu mao Chuong- phu, ngudi nude Tong thi dai dung, ma ngudi nude Viet khong dung, bdi 

no khong dap vdi nhu cau. Huu dung hay vo dung la viec khong thudng cung nhu ldn nho 

vay." Mot trai dua to, nang nam thach" ma "bo no ra de lam cai bau" thi lai hong ca, khong 

dung gi duoc nua(vd dung); trai lai, neu de no nhu vay ma lam phao, deo loi qua song, thi no 

la hiiu dung. 

Ta thay rang neu biet dung, thi khong co vat gi la khong vo dung, nhu cung thdi mdn thuoc" 

bat quy thu" ma ke thi duoc phong hau, con ngudi thi suot ddi chi lam cai nghe quay to. B6 la 

Trang tu tra ldi cho Hue- tu (cung nhung ai che cai hoc cua dng la vo dung) rang: neu biet 

dung thi khong co cai hoc nao la vo dung ca: "la vi long cua phu tu con hep hoi chua thong 

dat"! 

Vat nao cung co cai Tanh tu nhien cua no, khong vat nao giong vat nao ca. Bdi vay, ta phai 

biet chiu cho khac biet nhau do, nghia la phai biet nhin nhan su " bat binh dang tu nhien" cua 

su vat ma dung dem tu tarn mong binh dang nhat loai tat ca lam mot. Biet nhan su " bat binh 

dang tu nhien" giua van vat, tiic phai biet kinh trong cho rieng biet cua moi vat, nghia la cai 

tanh tu nhien cua moi vat ma khong xen vao lam trd ngai su phat trien tu nhien cua no hay 

sua doi uon nan no theo mot cdng thuc gia tao nao khac. Khong xen vao lam trd ngai hay lam 

hu hoai tanh tu nhien cua moi vat, la de cho moi vat duoc song " tieu dieu" (tu do) theo cai 

song cua no, tu do phat trien theo cai tanh tu nhien cua no. 

*** 

Tom lai, tieu dieu la tu do. Tu do la song duoc theo tanh tu nhien, tiic la theo ban tanh cua 
minh. Mot hanh dong duoc goi la hanh dong tu do, khi nao trong hanh dong ay, ta bieu 16 
duoc cai Ngudi tham sau, thanh thuc cua ta, theo ta, chii khong phai theo ke khac, theo mot 
giao ly hay mot mau ngudi ly tudng nao ngoai ta. Va neu moi vat, vat nao cung duoc song 
theo minh, thi se khong con ldn, nho, quy, tien nua, ma thay deu tieu dieu nhu nhau ca. Tieu 
dieu nhu nhau ca, do la binh dang tuyet doi, ma binh dang tuyet doi la nho co tu do tuyet doi. 
Thien Te- Vat- Luan se ban ve cai Binh dang tuyet doi ay. 
THU-GIANG 
NGUYEN- BUY- CAN 



dich va binh chu 



Lao tu noi: " kien To, bdo Phdc"; Phdt gia bdo: " kien tdnh, thdnh Phdt". 

[ii] Xd ky thich nhon: Id bo minh md theo ngu&i. 

[Hi] Dai- Tong- Su: " Hdnh danh that ky, phi si da vong than bat chdn, phi dich nhon da. 

Nhuac ho Bat- Giai, Vu Quang, Bd Di, Thuc te, Ca tie, Tie du, Ky thu, Than do dich, thi dich 

nhon chi dich, thich nhon chi thich, nhi bat tie thich ky thich gia da. Lam theo danh, ma bo 

mat cdi ciia minh, khong phdi la ke di; lam cho mat mqng minh, khong ro chdn ly, do chdng 

phdi la ke sai khien duac ngu&i. Nhu Ho Bat Giai, Vu Quang, Bd Di, Thuc Te, Ca Tie, Tie Du, 

Ky Tha, Than Do Dich, la hang lam cdi lam cua ke khdc, theo cdi phdi cua ke khdc ma khong 

biet theo cdi phdi cua minh. 

[iv] Neu so sdnh v&i cdu noi nay cua hien gia Epiclete(Hy Lap): " Pham su vat, co cdi thuoc 

ta, co cdi khong thuoc ta. Thuoc ta la nhung suphdn dodn, nhung khuynh hu&ng, nhung due 

vong, nhung uu- ghet cua ta, torn lai la moi tdc dung cua linh- tinh ta; khong thuoc ta, la than 

the ta, cua cdi, danh vong, tu&c phdn, noi torn lai la moi su khong con phdi la tdc dung cua 

linh- tinh ta. 

" Cdi thuoc ta thai ban tdnh no tu do, khong gi ngdn tra, khong gi trdi nghich lai duac; cdi 

khong thuoc ta thai khong duac chdc chdn, khong duac tu do, thuang bi ngdn tra, la cdi a 

ngoai ta ma thoi. 

Vdy, ta phdi nha rang cdi gi von no khong duac tu do ma cho la tu do, cdi gi cua nguai 

ngoai, vat ngoai ma cho la cua minh, thai se phdi phien long, se phdi buon buc, se phdi boi 

roi, se dem long odn trai, trdch nguai, nhung neu cdi gi that cua ta moi coi cua ta, cdi gi cua 

nguai, coi la cua nguai, thai khong ai ep uong minh duac nua, khong ai ngdn cam minh duac 

niia, khong phdi odn ai, khong phdi trdch ai, khong phdi mien cuang lam viec gi, khong ai hqi 

minh, khong co ke thu, vi khong phdi chiu su gi thiet hqi. "(ban dich cua Pham Quynh, 1929). 

fvj dung Ian Ion thien tdnh vai tdnh tinh ciia ban ngd, nhu nhung tdnh nong, tdnh keo kiet, 

tdnh thich xa hoa, tdnh ham vui, thich buon cua con nguai. Do la cho ma Lao tu goi " thuang 

due bat ddc, thi dihuu ddc... "(chuang 38 Dqo Due Kinh). 

[vi] Cdc chdnh gia, ddc u huu sanh chi sa bdo hap gia, todn u di sanh chi hdu(Dich- Kinh). " 

Cdc chdnh ", la nhdn duac tu khi moi sanh; "bdo hap ", la giu duac tron ven sau khi da sanh. 

Cdi ma ta goi la Chdnh do, tire la cho ma Lao tu goi " tu nhi bat vong ". 

[vii] "Ban tdnh duy nhdt" ay, Phdp- ngu goi la " unisite individuelle" hodc la " personne 

humaine". Dong mot nghia vai cdu nay trong Dich- Kinh:" Tri tien thodi ton vong nhi bat that 

ky chdnh, ky duy thdnh nhon ho ? " (biet tien, biet thoi, biet giu cho con, biet lam cho mat, ma 

khong lam mat cdi Chdnh ciia minh, chi co bde thdnh nhon ma thoi u?). chu chdnh day, tire la 

Tdnh Tu nhien ma ta da tho lanh cua Trai Ddt. 

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